عنوان مقاله [English]
poet's attitude towards the subject and characters. The purpose of this paper is to study the tone in Akhavan's poetry and its role in influencing his narrative poems, regarding his poetry collection, ‘Life says but still should live…’ In this collection, figures of speech such as imagery and imagination cannot be found much, but there are poetical orders such as rhyme and rhythm. Following the mentioned matter, this study has been conducted using descriptive-analytical method, concentrating on the element of tone in three scopes of characters' tone, effective factors in creating the tone and the role of tone in implied and secondary meanings of the speech. Akhavan,has created the tone based on the social status of the characters, events and situations like modern story tellers and has used elements such as words, images, body language, sentence structure, music, etc.
Key Words: tone, Akhavan, ‘Life says but still should live...’
Tone in poetry shows the way the poet deals with the subject, and in fact, “it is the poet’s progress to describe and highlight the subject and the emotion created by all elements in the poem” (Arshadnejhad, 1998: 75). On the basis of the work’s subject and content, this issue “can take different forms to itself: comic, sad, frivolous, serious, ironic, or any other tone” (Mirsadeghi, 2009: 159). Tone is one of the main elements of literary works especially narrative works which is effective on the content and on all other elements of the work. From this perspective, some believe that: “sketch, characterization, theme and dialogue, all exist separately until tone does activate and place them next to one other” (Pin, 2010: 11).
Out of the poetry collections of Akhavan Saales, the collection Life says, but still should live… has more capability for studying the level of Akhavan’s creativity and artistic talent about toning; because on the one side, all of this collection is in the form of narrative and dialogue, and on the other hand, different characters from various classes of the society are present in this work. This had required that every character has spoken in the specific language of their own specific social class. In addition to all these, the poems of this collection, compared to his other collections such as Winter, End of Shahnama, and Of this Avesta, have received lesser attention, and it is necessary that his artistic talent in this book receives more attention. For this purpose, in this article, it has been tried that by emphasizing on tone, these questions be answered: does every one of the characters in this work have a specific tone? What elements have been effective in building their tones? What is the position of tone in expressing the poet’s purpose and message?
1.2. Research methodology
The applied method is descriptive analytical. By extracting and categorizing the characters of this collection as well as their sentences, the tone of sayings from the linguistic, vocabulary, grammatical features, phonetic, imagery, musical, social position of the tellers and issues like these have been studied and according to the narrative situation, social position, the purpose and secondary meaning of the sentences, the importance of tone has been shown in this work.
This collection includes Akhavan’s memories and experiences of imprisonment. According to the poet, this work is “versed prose” since he wanted to try this area of poetry (Akhavan, 2008: 141). For this purpose, Akhavan has intentionally and knowingly tried not to use ironic language based on imagery. He has not used poetic elements much, except for rhyme, meter, rhythm, and poetic disciplines. On this basis, studying this work from the fictional values perspective is essential from poetic perspective. In order to try versed prose in this collection, Akhavan has made use of tone affluently. Unlike his previous works, in this collection, he has made little use of words, terms, and expressions that are traditional and archaic. This has made the characters have more natural tones appropriate for their social class and their levels of learning and knowledge, and their individuality has been maintained all over the story. In order to analyze this work more precisely, it has been studied from three perspectives of the tone of characters, the effective elements of the creation of tone, and the role of tone in creating secondary meanings.
Tone is one of the main elements of fiction and poetry which shows the writer’s opinion and perspective about a subject. Akhavan has made use of this element in Life says but still should live… creatively so that he could experiment and try versed prose. In the realm of the tone of characters, every one of them has a tone in accordance with their social position, space and the events of the work. Terms, expressions, and the common sentences among the common people have given friendly tone to the characters’ words. The narrator's tone in this work is a compassionate tone which is, of course, very suitable for its subject i.e. describing the prisoners and defending them. In the realm of the effective elements of creating the tone, Akhavan’s utmost creativity is through indirect toning by making use of elements such as music, terms, descriptions, and imagery, common expressions, sounds, body language, the structure of sentences and sudden interruptions. The poet’s mastery of meter is so much that it has not affected fluency of the poem and individuality of the characters’ tones, the poem sometimes gets closer to discourse poetry. Sometimes, the characters interrupt their sentences in accordance with the emotional modes; and in this regard, in order to reinforce and influence the language and to show the tone, in addition to the interrupted structure of the sentences, the narrator has used images and body language, too. One of the uses of tone in this collection is its relationship with figurative and internal meanings where in many cases, by the use of irony, Akhavan has placed some critical points and objections behind the tone and transferred them to the audiences. Generally, it can be said that the tone has been one of Akhavan’s most important tools in this experience which has led to variety, dynamicity, and attractiveness of the work, and has saved it from being spiritless and from barrenness.