عنوان مقاله [English]
Following the revolutions shaped in the contemporary world, the poets' views of love and, consequently, some features in modern romantic lyricism changed, so much so that in this type of poetry, the great content of love, away from its physical and lustful aspect, spread from individuals to the society and from the it contemporary time to ages and to history. In the present study, it has been attempted to find the contemporary poets whom the mentioned changes have influenced in terms of their modern romantic lyrics and also to consider how it happened, by the use of the descriptive-analytical method. The results suggest that, making changes in the form and meaning of the Persian poetry, Nima Yushij created a new style. This new approach was manifested mostly in the poems of Fereydoon Tavalloli. Shamluu's romantic lyrics were written as the triangle of the poet, beloved and society; and in most of his romantic poems, a continuous dynamism can be observed, being united with the beloved, society and ultimately with all human beings. Regarding the theoretical system, semantics and aesthetics, Sohrab Sepehri's romances are based on the universal view, emotional wisdom, emotional-sensational, and aesthetics that are completely different from the history of Persian romantic lyricism.
Key Words: lyricism, love, modern romantic lyricism.
Nowadays, taghazol means writing a sonnet, writing love poetry, to love, and lovemaking (Moin, 1996, vol. 1: 1106). On this basis, the new form of taghazol is different from the traditional taghazol. Nowadays, every type of poetry in which the poet makes love is called taghazol; however, in the traditional poetry, taghazol was part of ode and its subject matter was not only love. Sometimes it was describing youth, oldness, nature, etc. It can be said that in the past, taghazol was a type of well-start by the use of which the poet wanted to start their poetry. It has to be considered that because of the changes that happened in the contemporary world, the poets’ perspective of love changed and as a result, some changes appeared in the taghazoli poetry. It has to be mentioned that the changes in the perspective of the poets in the contemporary poetry displays the face of the beloved more clearly. When the poets talk of a beloved in the contemporary poetry, they mean a specific beloved, but in the old poetry, the beloved was general and obscure. Presently, in the love poems, some issues are mentioned which are tangible and objective. Another feature of the free verse of ghazel and love poetry is that it occupies language so much that it seems in addition to the formation of language, some other thing happens in language as well. This is while if there is no language, there is no poetry, consequently there is no poet, and naturally, there is no love (Baraheni, 2001, vol. 3: 2061). Although the presentation of hypocrisy, complaining about the world, and issues alike are considered as the social aspects of romantic free verses, still they do not fully match the central core of these types of poetry i.e. love. These aspects in the classic ghazel have been accompanied by love themes only by the help of meter and rhyme; and in the contemporary love poem which is considered as the red line between social poetry and love poetry, these two subjects have had lesser real contact (Behfar, 2002: 41). In this survey, two main questions will be answered: 1) in the poems of which contemporary major poet, these transformations could be observed? 2) How do these transformations show themselves in their poems?
In this survey, considering the changes mentioned about the taghazoli free verse and its features, we are about to study the features of taghazoli free verse in the descriptive and analytical methods by focusing on the poems of poets such as: Nima Yushij, Forough Farrokhzad, Ahmad Shamlu, Mehdi Akhavan Sales, Sohrab Sepehri, Fereidun Moshiri, Muhammad Reza Shafi Kadkani, Fereidun Tvalloli, Hushang Ebtehaj and Hussein Monzavi.
By introduction of changes to the form and meaning of Persian poetry, Nima Yushij could create a new style. By writing his poem, Afsaneh, in 1922, he created a new form of taghazol which “as a branch of Nima’s poetry, gradually separated itself from Nima’s poetry and developed” (Yahaghi, 2006: 65). Love in the poems of the contemporary poets is very different from love in the classic poems. Nima is the precursor of this change; he tries in his love poems to mix union with the beloved and with nature together and he is successful. In Nima’s love poems, the poet, the beloved and nature are linked to each other like three dimensions of a triangle, and sometimes the society, too, enters this relationship; however, Nima interprets the society in the form of symbols: “I await you in the dark/where the shadows take black colors under in the branches of talajans/and a sorrow is provided from those tired-hearted ones… (Nima Yushij, 1991: 517).
The research results show that love which is one of the old subject matters of Persian poetry has experienced some changes in the free verse, and the beloved has become more objective and tangible; so much that the poets in the past had identical perspectives to the beloved, but in the contemporary love poems, we face a special form of lover and beloved, and the heroes of the poems are mostly the poets themselves. Beloved in the contemporary poetry is this very worldly beloved; or in its more balanced and social form, it is a subject matter such as justice or humanity, not the heavenly unreachable beloved. In the free verse, love spreads away from the lust to human love and from the individual realm to the social area so much so that human, nature, beloved and society are the main branches of lyrical free verses. Taghazol has taken different forms in the works of great contemporary and stylist poets. It seems like a triangle in Nima’s poems in which the dimensions are man, nature and the beloved and every dimension necessitates loving the other two. Shamlu’s lovemaking has been formed in the shape of the triangle of poet, beloved and society, and all over his taghazol, there is a constant struggle for unity with the beloved, society and eventually, with all human beings. Moshiri’s taghazol mentality is not creative, new or different from love. In Moshiri’s poetry, the slow process of the classic sonnet’s turning into quatrain and into rhyming free verse is observable. Akhavan’s love poetry is a little and less significant part of his poems. Out of the famous and infamous women poets of the past millennium, for the first time, Forough is the representative of feminine taghazol mentality. Forough’s poetry is the type of poetry which unveiled the nature of womanly soul and language and de-familiarized masculine taghazoli language, and mentality. Sohrab Sepehri’s romances, from the perspective of the theoretical system, semantics, and the aesthetic system, is based on an ideology and emotional as well as sensational understanding which is totally different from the background of writing love poems.