عنوان مقاله [English]
Nostalgia or homesickness is to regret the past and to feel alienated and detest the present realities. This term has entered literature and art from psychology, and in literature, it is defined as an unconscious mood which happens to the poet or the writer. Ibn Nubata (768-686), the proud of Egyptian poets, lived far from his hometown, Levant, for many years, so Nostalgia is one of the main themes in his poems. He expresses his regret for the past and the homesickness, which is resulted from that, by lingual tools and different poetical pictures and also attempts to free himself from his undesirable present situation through finding a substitution. His psychological reaction against this nostalgia often appears through remembering the sweet times with his beloved, complaining about his years of senility, homesickness, the loss of his loved ones, memories with his friends and family, archaism and social isolation. In the Present paper, it has been attempted to, first, clarify the relationship between Nostalgia, psychology and Romanticism and second, to analyze the contents and components of Nostalgia in the poetry collection of this Arab poet.
Key Words: nostalgia, Ibn Nubata, poetry, homesickness, regret.
Lots of people are fond of the past times and of where they had belonged to. They consciously and unconsciously escape from the present time to seek refuge in their ideal and dream past. This is a natural and instinctive feeling in human beings. Mentally, this feeling will be reinforced when the individual gets away from his past. It is in this situation that the individual returns to his past and by reviewing it in the depth of his mind feels some sort of sorrow mixed with joy. This condition is called nostalgia which in the Persian language is often called homesickness and regret of the past. The term ‘nostalgia’ has entered the field of literature from psychology. In the literary studies, it refers to a type of writing on the basis of which the writer or the poet in their writing or poem, describes the childhood and youth days, etc. or a land they remember, in a painful and regretful way (Anusheh, 1997: 2016/2). The disorganized political and social conditions under the feudal system in Egypt made Ibn Nubata, the Amir of Egyptian poets, leave his country. Therefore, homesickness is one of the main themes in his poetry. This issue is very outstanding as one of the unconscious behaviors of the individual in the poems of Ibn Nubata, the famous poet of the feudal times in Egypt. The nostalgic elements of his poetry are homesickness, sweet days of being with the beloved, mourning the loss of close ones, memories with others, complaining about the wintered old age, remembrance of ancient times, and social seclusion. He pictures these meanings in his poetry with the honesty of emotions and overflow of feelings. This study tries to answer the following questions:
What are the backgrounds and causes of homesickness and nostalgia in Ibn Nubata’s poetry?
What are the most important elements of homesickness and nostalgic feeling in Ibn Nubata’s poetry?
This study tries to analyze the presence of the psychological-social phenomenon of nostalgia in the writings of Ibn Nubata, the famous Egyptian poet in the time of the feudal system, by the use of the analytical-descriptive method.
Considering the individual and social life of Ibn Nubata, his most important and most outstanding poetic themes were sorrowful nostalgic subject matters. He had passed half of his life in exile and was a wanderer who was dissatisfied with the existing situation, so in his poems, he speaks of his desire for childhood days, youth, family, motherland, and the old legends. In order to know the reasons behind this, we should consider that Ibn Nubata left his motherland because of the poverty his family was suffering from and in order to reach his unfulfilled desires; because in his country, he sees no hope of life. He leaves everything behind and decides to immigrate to a land where there are better hopes of living. However, this journey did not make the poet happy and made him suffer from reclusion and loneliness. For reducing his suffering and sorrow, he takes refuge in the past; because it comforts him after those failures and accompanies him in the time of loneliness and hardships. With the help of the passion, interest, and talent, Ibn Nubata affluently describes the homeland where he passes the golden days of his youth. Not only exile but also losing the fruits of his life was another reason for the appearance of nostalgic feelings in Ibn Nubata’s poetry. He had sixteen children who all were buried before feeling the warm arms of their father and mother; and this huge sorrow had a very deep effect on the post’s body and soul, so much so that he has written his most moving elegies for the loss of his children. Another one of the elements creating nostalgic feelings in Ibn Nubata’s poetry is unpopularity of poetry and poetry writing which had reached its heights in the Abbasid period. The feudal Sultans mainly paid no attention to poets. This disdain and carelessness disturbed the delicate soul of the Amir of Egyptian poets. Reflection of this inattention can be tracked in the poems Ibn Nubata has written in the appraisal of the precious jewel of his life.
Ibn Nubata has few poems without the theme of the sorrow rising from the sadness of exile and desire of the past. The sorrow of living away from homeland, migration, and separation, mourning loss of the loved ones, the regret of losing youth, collective memories, archaism, and social reclusion are nostalgic elements of his poetry. The sorrow of exile in his poems mostly has individual aspects, and the poet only describes his individual past and talks about the regret of losing it. Ibn Nubata finds the treatment of his pains in taking refuge in the happy memories of the past; and it seems that his dissatisfaction with the existing conditions was so much that he had lost the power of thinking about future, about ideals, and generally he had lost the strength to draw a bright picture of the future in his poetry. Therefore, in the regrets of his poetry, there is no news of quest for utopia; and he finds his lost paradise mostly in remembering the homeland, loved ones, and after that, in the happy memories of youth, sometimes in archaism and collective memories, and even the regret of happy days of youth, too, become lovely in his poetry and get connected to the memory of days of togetherness. In memory of the homeland, he sometimes talks about happy days of togetherness with the beloved, and sometimes he talks of the beauties of homeland and its greenery; he rarely talks about present.
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