عنوان مقاله [English]
Nowadays, the technique of intertextual study is considered as one of the most obvious and precise structural properties of the contemporary poetry. This phenomenon calls for texts that are absent, predecessor or concurrent with the present text to somehow impose a semantic, artistic or stylistic duty on these texts. Quran as a comprehensive program and a sacred text has turned into the most significant poetic inspiration for contemporary Arab poets. Fadwa Tuqan is one of the sublime Palestinian poets who has been saturated with Quranic concepts and pictures and has enjoyed this technique to explain and confirm his internal feelings; particularly in national and patriotic matters.
In this survey, it has been attempted to consider the influence of Quran on Fadwa's life and poetry while studying Quranic intertextuality phenomenon in his poetry, using the descriptive-analytical method. The findings demonstrate that Quranic intertextuality has been used more in the second period of the poet’s literary life i.e. the Thematic Romance stage, and has helped him to create deep meanings and innovative and artistic pictures in his poetry.
Key Words: Quranic intertextuality, Fadwa Tuqan, Palestine, contemporary poetry.
As a book of holy words and an overflowing spring, the Quran includes countless moral advice and social lessons which have always inspired Arab poets and writers. Fadwa Tuqan is one of these poets. After passing the “individual romantic” period, she turned to “social realism” and with a realistic perspective, selected dealing with the issues of Palestine and expressing the challenges ahead of it as her most important artistic duty. She makes affluent use of contemporary literary techniques especially intertextuality in fulfilling this duty. Now, it must be observed that how this technique has appeared in her poetry. What elements have been effective in fulfilling it? Can the Quran be considered as one of the most influential elements of development and evolution of Fadwa’s poetry? Therefore, considering these questions, it can be said that this study follows two main objectives:
Expressing the level of Quran’s effectiveness on the poet’s poetry and literature after its effectiveness on the poet herself.
Expressing the basic subjects and axes which the poet insists on through being inspired by the Quran.
In this study, the writers have tried to find answers for research questions. In this way that they have first explained the term “intertextuality” literally and figuratively, and then, they have presented a short review of the poet’s biography as well as the literary stages of her career. On this basis, writings of Fadwa are divided into two parts namely “substantially romantic” and “socially romantic” and the role of the Quran in both of them has been studied separately. In addition to that, in the last part of the article, the Quranic intertextualities have been studied in the form of three types i.e. deductional, reductional, and inspirational intertextualities.
Fadwa has won a very high position in the contemporary Arab literature. “She has laid the foundations for lots of women’s poetic experiences about love, revolution and their objective movements against the society” (Djiosi, 1977: 339). Also, she is one of the contemporary poets who make affluent use of intertextuality in her poetry, however, before dealing with the Quranic intertextualities and their relationships in her poems, a short review of her literary life is presented so that in this way, a more comprehensive interpretation of the phenomenon of intertextuality in her poetry could be presented. Her poems can be divided into two distinct periods:
Substantial romanticism: in which the “individual” is the axis and basis of poetic ideas and expression of her individual feelings such as sorrow, love, and interest are placed in the framework of personal themes. In fact “romanticism is a subjective (internal) school, it means that the writer interferes in the process of their work and gives personal and private aspect to their work” (Seyed Husseini, 1974: 129). In this part of her life i.e. the years before 1967, by being influenced by the wave of romanticism in the Arab countries especially the Apollo school, Fadwa started writing emotional and conscientious poems. She says in this regard: “I cannot clearly mention what the effective factors on me were, but I can claim that initially, the Arab cultural heritage was my main source and after that, I have used the ideas of romantic poets in the West and the East. In this way, Ilia Abu Mazi’s poetry had a lot of influence on me. After that, I followed the works of Mahjar and Appolo schools so that I could find the right path for myself and set off” (Shaker, 2002: 121). Also in this period, her literary relations with Nawar Madavi and Ibrahim Naja, the Egyptian poet and the unwelcome results of these relationships in her tendency towards fundamental romanticism have also been effective (Al-Sheikh, 1994: 20).
The verses of the Quran have been very effective in deepening the poetic subject matters and inspiration of innovative images to her, in this way that in the first period, because of her excessive imitation of romanticism, the readers witness creation of cliché and out of fashion images with shallow subject matters; whereas in the second period, social events like Arab’s defeat in June 1967 and the oppression of Zionism on the Palestinian society made the poet turn to the society and picture her own society and the oppression that had overtaken it. For this purpose, she seeks help from the Quran and by the use of many Quranic intertextualities, tries to emphasize on subjects such as the necessity of standing against Zionist oppressors, stimulation, and strengthening of revolutionary spirits in her countrymen and giving meaning to the issues of the society. Since the Quran is a realistic text and a comprehensive program that is not only useful for a specific group but for all mankind, it not only helps him reach her goal, but also it becomes very helpful and effective in expanding her imagination and poetic spirit and also it creates a type of convergence as well as a mental succession in her poems. The larger number of the Quranic intertextualities in the second period, compared to the first period, and after that, deepening of Fadwa’s poetry and her poetic popularity in this period are good reasons for this claim.
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