عنوان مقاله [English]
The frequent use of discourse in some contemporary poems has created a poetic current named discourse poems. The discourse sonnet is a branch of discourse poetic current and a significant symbol of contemporary poetry in the course of Persian classical poetry which has a discourse body, is alive, has broken expressions as well as various formats and combined concepts. These concepts are a mixture of new and old subjects with a bold approach to precision, revealing speaker’s personal emotions to the reader and enriched feelings beyond the reality. It is necessary to know these features, therefore, this study aims to introduce different kinds of sonnets and their structural (lingual and rhetorical) as well as conceptual (intellectual) features, using the descriptive-analytical method. It is necessary to consider the discourse words, the broken language, the discourse plot, the application of words, the quality of changing discourse, explicitness, revealing the truth, honesty between the lover and the beloved, altered concepts and clear manifestation of Vasukht School are the main features of contemporary, discourse sonnets.
Key Words: discourse sonnet, contemporary sonnet, discourse poem, contemporary poem, style feature, stylistics.
As the focal point and the nature of language, it appears at the first glance that discourse lacks the organized framework of the poetic language; as the initial concept considers the written language different from the spoken language, or it might be that some take the spoken language limited to a period or a group of poets, this is not acceptable because of its detectable characteristics and tracks in the poetry of different periods. Spoken and written languages have always had interrelationships and interactions in the content as well as in the form. It has been so much that speech has not confined the domain of the poet’s expertise by excessive resorting to irregularity and facilitation in order to extend the domain of fluent and creative stream of consciousness, rather, the arenas of sounds, motions, feelings, instantaneous and temporary emotions, as well as mental and unique settings become more apparent in his poetry. This content-related transformation in poetry represents the change in the poet’s attitude towards artistic talent as well as justified and documented presentation of the mixture of feeling with rational justifiability which is now the requirement of the audience’s spirit and mental desire. Although according to some critics, discourse sonnet lacks the specific poetic position, more or less, this poetic current has found its place in the views of the poets or the understanding of the audiences in all periods; and if sometimes it had not been welcomed, it has been because of the absence of some elements of this poetic current. Attar with the nature of discourse in his vocabulary and trivial beliefs, Hafiz with outstanding dialogue and intimacy of speech in the expressions and the verbal content as well as semantic independence of the lines in his poetry which create intervals in discourse poetry, and Rumi with his dialectical terms, allegory and folkloric beliefs are the outstanding samples of discourse poets in the traditional Sufi literature. The traditional excitations and overflows in discourse poetry make the poetry remain in the limbo between literariness and speech so that no public and discourse authenticity can be regarded for poetry. Therefore, sometimes, many of the literary terms, because of repetition and their familiarity to mind, find their places in the current of discourse poetry in an institutionalized way. It means that traditional and literary terms are not always regarded as distinct from discourse language because they are the domain of all existing terms in traditional as well as colloquial poetry and are fluid in the contemporary discourse of the public.
This study has been carried out in the descriptive-analytical and content analysis methods. Theoretical principles of the study are prepared on the basis of contemporary poetry stylistics, sources and statistical domain of contemporary poets such as Yadullah Maftun Amini, Nosrat Rahmani, Hooshang Ebtehaj, Forough Farrokhzad, Muhammad Ali Bahmani, Hussein Monzavi, Seyed Ali Salehi, Ahmad Shamlu, Nader Nader Pur, Bijan Jalali, Simin Behbahani, Gheisar Amin Pur, etc. Content analysis is a method applicable to all types of different messages recorded in literary works, articles, official documents, etc. (Daniel, Rife and Lacy Stephen, 2009: 23) or it is any technique by the use of which specific features of the message get systematically and precisely identified for scientific deduction purpose. Preciseness and identicalness of the issue require that the study is based on specific rules so that it lets the researchers achieve similar results from different surveys (Taleghani, 2011: 95-96).
Discourse sonnet is a branch of discourse poetry in Persian classic poetry. It is presented as a different mixture of words and content in accordance with the feelings of people as well as contemporary cultural issues, with live and broken terminology, a soft mixture and excessive lyrical feelings for the beloved. Love-related behaviors in discourse poetry are on the basis of realism and justifiability; they are conveyed in the framework of new syllabic meters, but follow the traditional rhymes and meters. Therefore, the most beautiful definition of discourse sonnet is William Wordsworth’s definition of poetry where he states “poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings when these feelings are mixed with contemplation, they will be poetry in whatever form they are expressed” (Ziadi, 2001: 93). Discourse sonnet and haiku have been abler than other forms of contemporary sonnets to introduce themselves as the really meaningful sonnet forms containing love, emotional themes, and issues related to them, and to stay away from the interference of old and vague vocabulary with merely love-related meanings. Because of its simplicity and intimacy of terms, understandable love expressions, and acceptable as well as rational explanations, discourse poetry tries to intermingle cultural, social and public subjects with these themes; it also tries to stay away from spiritless decorated descriptions which have no effects on the readers. It tries to use rational explanations and discourse religion so that the readers’ desirable sonnet could be produced. For example, Yadullah Maftun Amini’s sonnets show that linguistic, literary and intellectual features of discourse sonnets have figuratively laid their bases in the contemporary poetry. Maftun does not impose terms, beliefs, and public as well as colloquial beliefs on the standard writing, but he creates poems which simultaneously lead to the attraction as well as repelling of the audience. He is the creator of concepts that are known to the reader’s mind and factors that attract the audience and rarely repel the audience by the imposing that rises from poetic self-awareness. Although, the dominant structure of the discourse sonnets written by most contemporary sonnet writers belongs to the old style, and this pre-furnished and somehow preventive method is still going on in discourse poetry. However, some poets have tried their talents in new structures as well as new contents and have used lively and colloquial tones and terms alongside other features of discourse sonnet. They include Forough Farrokhzad, Siavash Kasraee (Stone and Dew) and Yadollah Maftun Amini, etc.
Discourse sonnet is getting away from poetic imagination and getting closer to prose rationality (emotional and imaginative prose) of poetry. It lastly shows reaching dialogue, showing the truth, audience-centrality, maintaining the spirit of the listeners, the courage of using scattered themes, justifiability and extreme breaking of traditions, poet’s mental fickleness, and disorganized poems more than any other form of poetry; it justifies and supports them, too. Also, changes such as a variety of tone, narrative-centrality for expressing emotions, and distinction in the semantic context are other characteristics of the contemporary discourse sonnet. Features of discourse sonnets in structure (linguistically and rhetorically) are as follows: using interpretable everyday expressions, progress of discourse sonnet towards the themes of discourse religion, allegory and avoiding well-wishing explanation, using verbal expression akin to easygoingness and non-stop articulation of terms, motherliness and uncertainty of discourse sonnet, getting away of discourse sonnet from spiritless and commonplace metaphors and creating similes with receivable emotional atmospheres, the poet’s not following the form and rhyme in the old way because of the influence of discourse language on the language of sonnet, variety of the language with a broken structure and lively content which sometimes lacks artistic value influenced from discourse language, applying poetic decorations without showing off the mastery in poetic techniques; and in the domain of the content (intellectual domain), its characteristics are: expression of momentary and transient emotions and feelings, lack of content unity, showing truth and reality-centrality, poet’s recklessness in expressing love modes and relationships, the change of dialogue and discussion between lover and beloved, multiplicity of the quality and quantity of feelings and emotions, and presence of lively, original and delicate terms and expressions. Also, resurrection of terms by making use of innovative decorations, expressive images as well as expressions and concepts that rely on the public culture, superstitious beliefs, myths and the thoughts of primitive man are other characteristics of discourse sonnet.
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