عنوان مقاله [English]
Vamegh va Ozra is one the five Masnavis by Mirza Mohammad Sadegh Nami as an imitation of Nezami’s Khamseh. In this paper, the similarities of the two lyrics composed by Nezami and Mirza Mohammad Sadegh Nami titled Khorsrow va Shirin and Vamegh va Azra respectively have been analyzed by library and descriptive-analytic methods. Considering the significance of expressing human affections in lyrical poems especially in Khosrow va Shirin and Vamegh va Azra and the necessity for deep recognition of the Persian classic literary and lyrical texts, these two works were studied comparatively. In both works, two prosperous and fortunate princes fell in love with two beautiful and virtuous girls, but in the above mentioned Masnavis, since the girls were chaste and modest, they did not meet their lovers’ desires. Therefore, the lovers became disappointed of them and any of them married another woman by free will or by obligation. But ultimately, they reached their main beloved by their destiny. Although in both stories, the lover and beloved were ruined and died after union. In spite of existing similarities, there are some differences in these two poetry collections such as the way characters fall in love, Shirin is a princess and Ozra is a nomad, Khosrow is braver than Vamegh, the presence of Farhad as the rival in Khosrow va Shirin and lack of such a character in Vamegh va Azra. In general, the narrator in both stories is omniscient and the scenery is the same in both, but Nami Esfahani’s work compared to Nezami’s, is simpler and less coherent and also less masterly which makes his work a superficial one.
Keywords: lyrical literature, Khosrow va Shirin, Nezami Ganjavi, Vamegh va Azra, Mirza Mohammad Sadegh Nami
Edward Morgan Forster states in his Aspects of Novel that story is "reporting events chronologically" (Forrester, 2012: 42) and believes that a true story should make the reader want to know. A survey of the lyrical literature and telling of sensual emotions especially in Nezami's poetry collection, Khosrow va Shirin, and Mirza Muhammad Sadiq Nami's Vamegh va Ozra, which have many similarities in contents and structure and in the meantime have differences with each other, is acceptable as an influential social movement in the society.
Although imitation in literature can originate from some sort of inability in innovation or weakness of criticism, from another perspective, it can be a testimony to high skills of some poets and permanence of some relevant works. In this sense, imitating great works of literature in Persian can also be regarded as a type of smart choice and fair criticism. With this perspective, in this article, similarities and differences between the two poetry collections of Nezami's Khosrow va Shirin and Mirza Muhammad Sadiq Nami's Vamegh va Ozra have been studied. The study tries to find answers to these questions:
1. To what extent and with what perspective has Mirza Muhammad Sadiq Nami imitated Nizami? 2. How are Mirza Muhammad Sadiq's modeling type and imitation of Nezami's Khosrow va Shirin in his Vamegh va Ozra?
1.2. Research methodology
In this article, the similarities between the two lyrical poetry collections of Nezami's Khosrow va Shirin and Mirza Muhammad Sadiq Nami's Vamegh va Ozra are studied through the library study approach and by the use of the descriptive and analytical method. Considering the importance of presenting delicacy of human emotions in lyrical poetry collections especially the two collections of Khosrow va Shirin and Vamegh va Ozra, and considering the necessity of deeper understanding of the Persian classical literary as well as lyrical works, analysis, and interpretation of these two works are in the comparative method.
Both collections of the poets start with monotheism, appraisal, and thanksgiving to God:
In the name of the one from whom the universe has its name
The sky moves and the earth resides because of him
(Nezami, 2012: 180)
In these lines, the poet talks about the creation of the universe and believes that God almighty is the source of everything. In the poetry collection of Vamegh va Ozra, too, the book opens with God's appraisal:
Oh from whose name every famous have their name
And beginning of all speech is your name
Oh God do so that in the world
This hand could do nothing but good
(Nami Isfahani, 2002: 4)
Nami, too, has started his book in the name of God and has stated that all speech has to start in the name of God. He has also asked God for blessing and virtues. After praising God, he has praised the holy Prophet (peace be upon him). It comes in the collection of Khosrow va Shirin:
Muhammad under whose steps lies the whole universe
Thousands of appraisals to his virtuous soul
Illuminator of the eyes of the wise
Balance of the workshop of creation
(Nezami, 2013: 185
Here, too, Nezami refers to the source of creation and names the holy Prophet (peace be upon him) as the balance of the workshop of creation. We also read in the collection Vamegh va Ozra:
Oh the Abtahi Prophet oh the virtuous soul
Oh the Hashemi messenger my soul be yours
People's affairs lost their validity in the world
Find some alternative with your mercy and treat with blessing
(Nami Isfahani, 2002: 6)
In these lines, Nami asks the Prophet (peace be upon him) to help the people of the world. By comparing the lines of Nezami and Nami, it can easily be understood in this part that Nezami's lines are more masterly and that Nezami, compared to Nami, discusses more complicated issues and subjects.
Since both features of romance i.e. lovemaking and adventure exist in both works, they both are capable of being studied in the realm of romance. Romance is a prose or versed fancy fiction that focuses on abnormal or surprising events, pictures strange adventures and exaggerated love stories, or presents knightly actions (Nasr Isfahani, 2010: 144). In Vamegh va Ozra, almost the general structure of fancigraphy is observed because the story includes both exaggerated romances as well as strange adventures, especially at the end of the story (burning of Vamegh va Ozra by flaming of their inner fires). Also, Khosrow va Shirin is classified within romance or as Nezami himself calls it, fancigraphy. Northrop Frye believes that "by fancigraphy, Nezami meant the term 'romance' but because of lack of previous background, probably we should say that it was one of Nezami's skilfully self-made terms. This reveals his vast familiarity with and deep knowledge of poetics of genres or literary types of his works (Frye, 2005: 23).
When I have a treasure like Makhzan-ul-asrar,
Why should I suffer an effort in longing?
But there is no one now in the world
Who doesn't wish for havasnama
I cooked fancy with sweet craft
It's sorrow for seekers of sorrow
I patterned fancy in it so masterly
That mind will get fanciful by reading it
(Nezami, 2012: 198)
In the poetry collection of Khosrow va Shirin, Khosrow went out for hunting and as he was hunting, Shirin appeared from the other side.
With the luscious pals that mirthful one
Came out that day for hunting
The two hunters reached at the same time
Soared in the air to hunt one another
They laid their eyes on each other so
That watered each other's eyes
Neither could Shirin be separated from Parviz
Nor could Shabdiz pass by Golgun
In Vamegh va Ozra, too, Prince Vamegh sits on his horse and sets out of the tent to desert for hunting. In search of his prey, the Prince suddenly sees beautiful Ozra.
The Prince with the intention to hunt
Got on the fleet white horse a day
Happily set out to the desert
Destiny was riding with him obedient
Vamegh that good-looking Prince
Was looking for prey with servants in the desert
In short, Vamegh the young lad
Saw Ozra the pretty idle
Out of love's magic and enchantment
Vamegh's eyes were left open on Ozra
In these parts, Nezami and Mirza Muhammad Sadiq Nami have applied the metaphor to convey their messages.
The poetry collection, Khosrow va Shirin has been written in 571 by Nezami Ganjavi. The subject matter of the story is Khosrow Parviz's love of Shirin, the Armenian princess. The story belongs to the Sasanid period. Vamegh va Ozra has been written in the second half of the 17th century AD by a famous and skilled poet, Mirza Muhammad Sadiq Nami. Nami has written his Panj Masnavi imitating Nezami's Khamseh. Vamegh va Ozra is his fourth Masnavi which tells the story of Prince Vamegh and Ozra. Briefly speaking, Nezami's Khosrow va Shirin and Mirza Muhammad Sadiq Nami's Vamegh va Ozra have a lot of similarities. Both stories have the features of romance to some extent. Beautiful princes fall in love with pretty virtuous girls. After lots of conflicts, they reach their beloved ones. This union eventually leads to their deaths. In these two stories, despite the existence of many similarities, there are differences too. These differences include the type of characters’ falling in love, Shirin is a princess and Ozra is Bedouin, bravery, and gallantry of Khosrow and Vemegh’s lack of such qualities, existence of Farhad in Khosrow va Shirin as Khosrow’s rival is considerable while Mirza Muhammad Sadiq Nami’s Vamegh va Ozra lacks such a character. Nezami’s poems have more solidarity, are more beautiful and masterly which all show his skill and mastery, but the poems of Mirza Muhammad Vamegh Nami, who imitates Nezami, do not have much innovation and are very simple and ordinary. From this perspective, it needs no further explanation and interpretation since it has less literary devices compared to the poems of Nezami. This has made Nami’s work change from a voluminous work of literature into a linear one; it is crystal-clear that this is not considered an advantage of the literary work; it also reduces a lot of values which we call literary values of the work.
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