کاربرد استعارۀ مفهومی در قصاید ناصرخسرو

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستانEmail

2 دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

چکیده

ناصر خسرو قبادیانی، شاعر اسماعیلی مذهب قرن پنجم (394-481هـ ق) است که در سراسر دیوانش می‌کوشد تا آرمان‌ها و عقاید خود را در قالب قصیده به سمع و نظر مخاطب برساند. در مقالۀ حاضر تلاش شده است تا بر اساس نظریۀ استعارۀ مفهومی قصاید وی را تحلیل شود. برای پیشبرد کار چهار مقولۀ خرد، تأویل، سخن و بدن انتخاب شد و حوزه‌های مبدأ در آن‌ها مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. چینش حوزه‌های مفهومی مبدأ و مشاهدۀ آن‌ها در کنار یکدیگر راهکار ما در این پژوهش بود که تأثیر  شایانی در فهم مقولات مقصد مذکور داشت. در نمونه‌های بررسی شده، به‌ندرت استعاره‌های ساختاری به چشم می‌خورد و استعاره‌های جهتی نیز فراوان یافت نمی‌شود که شاید به‎سبب گرایش علمی و شناختی کمترِ شاعر به این دو گونه استعاره باشد، امّا استعاره‌های هستی‌شناختی از هر سه نوع شخصیت، ظرف و هستومند فراوان مشاهده می‌شود. این پژوهش با روش تحلیلی وتوصیف زبان‌شناختی، با تحلیل ابیاتی از دیوان ناصر خسرو در چهار مقولۀ یاد شده انجام یافته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of the conceptual metaphor in Nasir Khosrow's odes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Barani Barani 1
  • Maryam Khalili Jahantigh 2
  • Mohammad Hakimi far 2
1 Associate Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, University of Sistan and Baluchistan
2 Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, University of Sistan and Baluchistan
چکیده [English]

Nasir Khusraw Qubadiani was an Ismaili poet of religion in the fifth century (1004 – 1088 CE), who tried to promote his ideals and thoughts through all over his poetry collection. In this paper it has been attempted to analyze his odes based on the theory of conceptual metaphor. This theory was presented by Lakoff and Johnson in Metaphors we live by in 1980 and brought many changes in literary criticism and Cognitive Linguistics. We selected four fundamental concepts of Nasir Khosrow’s odes and analyzed their metaphors and source domain. These concepts are as follows: intellect, interpretation, speech and body. We put source domains of the concepts together and tried to understand them as a whole. A range of meanings has been achieved that were effective and useful in our understanding of the target domain. This approach helps us have new experiences of text comprehension has been conducted using descriptive-analytical method of linguistics. In analyzed samples, structural and orientational metaphors were much less than ontological ones.
 
Keywords: Nasir Khosrow, odes, conceptual metaphor.

1.     Introduction

Language is not just an output, but it develops concepts, hides them, builds them, and in fact, the dialectic relationship between language and thought, not only makes changes to the content of the discourse but transforms the way reality is generalized and reflected in words (Vygotsky, 1986: 165). Therefore, language is not just a means of communication, but it is one of the most important tools of cognitive organs and actively plays roles in processing data, conceptualizing, semantic memory and in the process of thinking (Ghasem Zadeh, 2013: 56). So, the best source for understanding beliefs and ideologies of individuals is the language knotted to their thinking system. Nasr Khosrow Ghobadiani is the Esmaili poet of the 13th century AD (889-901 AD). In this article, his odes have been analyzed on the basis of conceptual metaphor theory.
1.1.Statement of the problem and research questions
The metaphor which is one of the most important tools of mind and language and a major part of cognitive area relies on it, in the theory of conceptual metaphor, has received far more important position compared to the past. This theory was first coined in 1980 in George Lakoff and Johnson’s book, Metaphors We Live by and after that, many other individuals like Mark Turner, Zoltan Kovecses, etc. took considerable steps to complete it. From the literary rhetoric point of view, the metaphor is related to the rhetoric; whereas, the subject of conceptual metaphor proves that metaphor is not only related to the literary realm of language and has roles in the daily function of language as well. With this attitude, the questions of this survey are 1. What kind of conceptual metaphors are observable in Naser Khosrow’s odes?  What is the position of personalizing cognitive and directional metaphors in the poems of Naser Khosrow? 3. Is the goal in accordance with the entity sources in the poems of Naser Khosrow?
1.2.Research methodology
By the use of analytical and linguistic descriptive method, this study analyzes some lines of Divan Naser Khosrow in four fields of intellect, interpretation, discourse, and body; and the source fields have been analyzed in them. The arrangement of the source conceptual fields and observing them next to each other was our solution in this survey which had considerable effect in understanding the expressions of the meant goal.
1.3.Literature
In the past few years, with the translations and surveys of individuals like Golfam, Sojoudi, Hashemi, etc. space has been opened for conceptual metaphor and gradually different surveys were carried out. Some of these studies on the basis of this theory are as follows: ‘Comparison of conceptual metaphors in written and colloquial Persian and in contemporary poetry’by Mahdieh Abbasi, ‘Comparative study of cognitive metaphors in Shahryar’s Turkish and Persian poems’ by Hurieh Shaghaghi Zadeh Arzangh, ‘Analysis of conceptual metaphor in Shamlu’s poems’by Mahdi Najjar Firozjaee, and ‘Study of metaphor in Persian traditional poetry and free verse on the basis of conceptual perspective focusing on selected poems of Hafiz and Sohrab Sepehri’ by Rokhsareh Sohrabi. Bahman Shahri, too, wrote his thesis paper titled ‘Study of the relationship between ideology and metaphor by focusing on critical dialogue analysis’ in this subject; and derived an article titled ‘Linksbetween metaphor and ideology’ from his thesis paper. Rezapur and Agha Golzadeh in their ‘The role of metaphor in highlighting and marginalizing ideology in the national newspapers’,studied the ideological function of conceptual metaphor in marginalization and highlighting of ideologies in the national newspapers. In this survey, by juxtaposing source concepts that were written on four target subjects of wisdom, interpretation, discourse, and body, it has been tried to obtain an area of concepts that have been written on the basis of these target subjects; and from this perspective, a modern way of receiving basic concepts of the poet’s mind has been suggested.
1.4. Conclusion
After studying the source conceptual areas, it was concluded that in Naser Khosrow’s odes, ontological metaphors have hardly been used. Direction metaphors also are not found a lot and perhaps it was because Naser Khosrow had a little academic tendency to and familiarity with these types of metaphors. A huge number of conceptual metaphors in his Divan include three types of ontological metaphors.
By putting the source conceptual areas together, a realm of meaning is achieved which is remarkably effective in understanding the target subjects and consequently in the type of reading the text.
After analyzing the texts related to the concept of wisdom, it is observed that areas such as service provision (eye, stick, vehicle, fence), directing (eye and torch-bearer) and transcending (high and kingdom) have been highlighted. The concept of wisdom in Naser Khosrow’s cognitive system has an elevated position.
In the source meaning areas related to interpretation, some concepts emphasize on hiding (jewelry and soul), some on accompaniment (warp and weft) and some others on emission and fall (moon and cloud). By looking at the source areas of interpretation as a whole, Naser Khosrow’s metaphoric cognition of the concept interpretation could be mentioned in this way that the Quran has form and meaning, and the main truth that leads one to salvation lies in the meaning. According to Naser Khosrow, form and meaning (revelation and interpretation) have been paired so much that accessing interpretation is difficult for ordinary people and only the Prophet and his honorable family have access to interpretation. It is required for all Muslims that they use interpretations of true interpreters for salvation.
About discourse, it has to be mentioned that some concepts in the areas of service provision (sword, arrow, horse, and waiter) and depth (sea and deepness) are more outstanding. The cognitive realm of discourse in Naser Khosrow’s mind could be summarized in this way that speech is a tool that should be used in the best way so that connection could be created between friends and it could be a defensive means against enemies. In his opinion, the speed and power of discourse are very high and if it is applied correctly, it facilitates life affairs and makes it possible to achieve goals. Discourse could be apparently very shallow and meaningless, but in the meantime, internally, it could be so meaningful that it can place a world of cognition within a single term. According to him, the meaningful words, the best of which is the Quran, are necessary for the spiritual life of mankind.
Source regions of the body, too, are divided into three main groups: body as a vessel for the soul (well, shell, pot, clothes), limitedness and inferiority of body (poor, helpless, mud) and the negative aspect (snake and wolf). In the metaphorical cosmology of Naser Khosrow, the body is a vessel that maintains soul in itself and this is an element of soul’s limitedness. The body is mortal, valueless and obliged. The soul is a precious truth which has been blown into the human body. If a man is attracted to physical desires, their soul will be metamorphosed and will leave the humane truth, and if man subordinates body to the divine soul, the body will leave evilness and will turn into a tool to obey God. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nasir Khosrow
  • odes
  • conceptual metaphor

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