سایه‌روشنِ موقعیت زن در جواهرالأسمار و طوطی‌نامه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضور هیات علمی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 گروه آموزشی زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 عضو هیات علمی بازنشسته

چکیده

تبیین موقعیت زنان در آثار ادبی، غالباً نمایانگر نظرگاه مترجم و نویسنده نسبت به این گروه است. از کتاب هندی سوکه­سپتاتی دو برگردان موجود است که در فاصلة زمانی اندکی انجام گرفته. عماد­ بن­ محمد ثغری بین سال­های (۷۱۵-۷۱۳ق) کتاب را از هندی به فارسی با نام جواهرالأسمار برگردانده و ضیاءالدّین نخشبی در سال ۷۳۰ق. با اشراف به ترجمة ثغری آن را به نام طوطی­نامه به گونه­ای موجز ترجمه و بازنویسی کرده است. مترجمان در برگردان اثر با دخل و تصرف­هایی در داستان­ها، تفاوت­هایی -­علاوه بر جنبه­های ادبی­- ایجاد کرده­اند. یکی از نکته­های مهمّ، دیدگاه متفاوتِ این ­دو مترجم نسبت به زنان در داستان­هاست. به دلیل شهرت و اهمّیّت دو اثر و تفاوت دیدگاه مترجمان، ضروری می­نمود نوع نگاه آنان نسبت به زنان واکاوی شود. با مطالعة جواهرالأسمار و طوطی­نامه و کاوش در لایه­های پنهانی دو اثر، تفاوت­های دیدگاه ثغری و نخشبی در مورد زن به روش تحلیل مقایسه ای بررسی شد. با توجه به این نکته که اصل داستان یکسان است؛ نوع بیان و نتیجه­گیری­های نخشبی حاکی از دیدگاه خصومت­آمیز وی نسبت به زنان است؛ در حالی که در شیوة داستان­پردازی ثغری، نگاهِ به زنان از اعتدال برخوردار است. نکات تازه­ای نیز از زندگی ثغری برای اوّلین بار در این مقاله ارائه شده است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Review and analysis of characters Mahshekar and Xojasteh in the Javaher-al-Asmar and Tooti- Nameh

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Ekhteyari 1
  • Maryam Fadaei Bajgiran 2
  • Mohamad Javid sabbaqeyan 3
1 Associated Professor Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Master's degree in Persian Language and Literature in Faculty of Letters and Humanities in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in Iran
3 Associated Professor in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

The women´s position in authers and translators works, is as an indicator of their perspective about the half of society. There are two translation of an Indian book, Sooke Septati (Seventy Parrots) that was accomplished in a short interval. Imad Ben Mohammad Saghri has translated the book between 713-715 from Indian to Persian and named it Javaher-al-Asmar and Zia-al-Din Nakhshabi with due attention to the Saghri׳s translation, has translated the book in730 and named it Tooti-Nameh. In addition to differences in literary aspects, the interferences of these translators in stories, created differences. The different perspective of both translators about the women in stories, is one of the important points. Due to the reputation and importance of the two works and the difference between the views of the translators, it was essential to look at their way of looking at women. In spite of the fact that general principle of the book is similar, the perspectives of Saghri and Nakhshabi about the women, are different. In spite of Saghri׳s moderate perspective about women, Nakhshabi׳s expression and conclusion indicated the hostile perspective of him about the women. In Nakhshabi׳s stories, sinful men are forgiven, but in Saghri׳s stories, there is no difference between men and women in pardon or punishment. Meanwhile, there are new points about the Saghri׳s life in this article.
 
Introduction
In Persian literature, countless books have been translated from Indian to Persian, that Javaher- al- Asmar or Tooti- Nameh is one of those translations. The function of characters in the translation of such stories is also influenced by the thinking of its translator. Two different translations of an ancient Indian literary work have two different views about women. The Indian book Sooke Septati or Shooke Septati means "Seventy-Two Legends of the Parrot's Language" (Saghri, 1973: 16), the first time Imad Ben Mohammad Saghri, called Javaher- al- Asmar, was translated to Persian. After a while, a similar translation was translated by another, and, of course, by looking at Saghri’s translation by Ziauddin (died: 751 AD) Nakhshabi in the name of Tooti- Nameh (Nakhshabi, 1993: 4).          
     Each translators added or diminished the stories on the original text during the translation. The most dominant difference in two translations, in addition to the difference in the names of the characters, is at the end and conclusion of the stories. The main characters in Javaher- al- Asmar are Saed and Mahshekar and in Tooti- Nameh are Meymoon and Xojasteh that at the end, Xojasteh is killed in the Nakhshabi's translation and Mahshekar is forgiven. Nakhshabi's diction and conclusions indicate his hostile attitude toward women; While in Saghri's storytelling style, women have a modest look. In this article, there are also new tips about Saghri's life. By studying Javaher- al- Asmar and Tooti- Nameh and exploring the hidden layers of these two literary works, the differences in the view of Saghri and Nakhshabi about women were examined and the examples of the stories were identified. A summary of Saghri and Nakhshabi's life, and two books of Javaher- al- Asmar and Tooti- Nameh are written.
 
Research Question
In this article, the following question was answered:
What is Saghri and Nakhshabi's  opinion about women's personality?
 
Research Hypothesis:
Saghri and Nakhshabi, although they have written a story, have two different optimistic and pessimistic views on women.
 
Discussion
 
1. Nakhshabi 's  Hostility View Towards Women
According to Nakhshabi 's word content, there is a kind of militancy towards women.  For example, in Tooti- Nameh, in the tale of "Minister and businessman and wooden parrot", after the betrayal of businesswomen and minister, and the replacement of a wooden parrot with a fake  parrot, both women are killed and Nakhshabi tells about their husbands: "They did not turn round women and became male-dominated”.  Almighty God will give all of them the strength to abandon the disobedient tribe. 
 
“Nakhshabi! talk about women is ruinous A married man is a horrific man
 
Anyone who leaves women
To be male- dominated, be happy"
 
(Nakhshabi, 1993: 93- 100)
 
In Javaher- al- Asmar, the merchant woman is killed and the wife of the minister, the beloved Meymoon, is expelled and alive (Sarghi, Haman: 132-136). Nakhshabi  in the tale "Pious girl and her three husbands", with the expression "the best husband is the grave," shows his disinterestedness toward the girls.
 
“Nakhshabi! The sorrow girls are life
This is common in every alley
 
In this time the girl
Tomb's house better than husband's house”
(Nakhshabi, 1993: 175-181)
                                                                      
But in Javaher- al- Asmar, the eremite’s view is that the man needs the existence of a woman (Saghri, Haman: 248-255). In the tale of "The Prince and Seven Ministers" after the bondwoman was killed, Nakhshabi believes who kills the bad woman is a man:
Nakhshabi! Your razor is worthy of a woman The man is who killed the woman
 
If a woman dies, it's not a pity
Bad woman killed better by big blade»
(Nakhshabi, 1993: 84)
 
In some stories, he worships men who leave women, and live in a male- dominated life (Ibid: 99 and 357). Nakhshabi has also magnified their mistakes by bringing more tales of women's betrayal.  The type of personality from "Xojasteh" in Tooti- Nameh and her killing at the end of the book can also be a sign of a hostile hostility to women. Another is that men are regarded as adolescent men who have been separated from women and have gone to the monastery. This kind of view is in fact a reflection of his own life, saying that he is away from people in isolation (Lahouri, the manuscript number: 35876: 2-351; Modarres, 1952: 179; Mohadrres Dehlavi, 2004: 103).  Saghri has a humble attitude toward women, and where he criticizes them in personality, he speaks of another to respond and defend women. For example, he writes in the language of the Prophet: “Love to three of your religion, the good, the women and made the eye of the eye in a prayer” and Arabic poems are also very much in this sense. Saghri also mentions that woman as a compassionate mother, advisor and wife, who, can be a leader and a calming man in difficulty (Saghri, 1973: 134; 69-79; 239-245).
 
2. 3. The Difference Between Two Translators in Common Stories
2. 3.1. Nakhshabi‘s PessimisticView in Common Tales
Nakgshabi’s view of women is negative and militant. This difference can be easily seen in Xojasteh character and Mahshekar. In Nakhshabi’s translation, the way of familiarity of the main character in the book, Xojasteh with Amirzadeh is in this way. Meymoon, Xojasteh’s husband leaves her and after a while, when Xojasteh goes to the roof, falls in love with Amirzadeh, and both of them use dealers (Nakhshabi, 1993: 11). In  Saghri’ s translation of Mahshekar, the main hero, after a year that goes to the roof to send a message to her husband, Saed, with the wind messengr, Amirzadah who lives in her neighborhood,  loved her and uses Zalan (Saghri, 1973: 36) . In Nakhshabi’s translation, Khojasteh expresses her enthusiasm and desire to go Amirzadeh with short stories every night. But in Javaher- al- Asmar, the character of Mahshekar is calm and quiet and patient. She has not made any tales and only comes to parrot to allow that he expresses a fairy tale according to his style. Mahshekar is at fourteen nights, and 30% of the stories are either ashamed or asking for a parrot; she listens to the continuation of the parrot's words, or she sleeps and does not go to see the beloved. At twenty nine nights and 62% of the tales, the parrot is finishing the story when the sun is rising; But in Tooti- Nameh, Xojasteh is always 100% ready to go after the completion of the story and never feel uncertainty. After the story ends, the parrot is allowed to go and Xojasteh is ready to go, but it is the sun that by its dawn prevents her from going. In two books, women are present in 46 stories. But 11 tales in Javaher- al- Asmar and 23 tales in Tooti- Nameh refer to women's lack of faith.
 
2. 3. 2. Tales of Consultation with Women
In common tales, Saghri by bringing women as advisers and shelters in difficult times for their husbands gives women a more logical view to the women than Nakhshabi who has not used this aspect of women. For example: (Saghri, 1973: 132-137; Nakhshabi, 1993: 93-100; Saghri, 1973: 138-142; Nakhshabi, 1993: 101-110).
 
 
2. 3. 3. The Uncommon Tales
Each of these two translators has used other stories in addition to common tales.  Nakhshabi has also selected most of the tales related to the sinful women in this regard. 
 
2. 3. 4.  Death Penalty for Sinful Women
Nakhshabi usually kills the sinful women in the story. For example, in Tooti- Nameh written by Nakhshabi, Khojasteh, who is the main character of the story, is killed at the end, but the main hero, Mahshakar, is forgiven in Javaher- al- Asmar.
 
2. 3. 5. Protecting Guilty Men
In the face of misunderstanding between men and women, Nakhshabi severely punishes women and often dishonors men's mistakes or leaves the speech without ending it (Nakhshabi, 1973: 153-160; Saghri, 1973: 221).
 
3. Conclusion
In Javaher- al- Asmar by Saghri and Tooti- Nameh by Nakhshabi, the differences in these works about women, express the desires and the attitudes of their translators. Nakhshabi at the end of the story kills the sinful women as Xojasteh’s fate, the main hero of the story, expresses this. Though Xojasteh was in the thought of error, but before committing a crime, Nakhshabi killed her in the story. Nakhshabi is associated with forgiveness through men.  With a magnification of women's mistakes, he negates the reader's mind towards them, but Saghri does not attempt to negatively portray the character of women in his tales, and in some cases the sinful women are forgiven. Totally, women are present in 46 tales of both books, Nakhshabi in 50% and Saghri in 24% of the tales deal with the negative aspects of women.

  Keywords: Women, Javaher-al-Asmar, Saghri, Tooti-Nameh, Nakhshabi´s Pessimism, Comparison.