عنوان مقاله [English]
Romanticism is one of the most important literary schools of the present era, which has associated with it many poets and writers in the world. Persian literature, especially child and adolescent poetry, has been influenced by romanticism. Jafar Ebrahimi, also known as Shaahed, is one of the prominent poets as well as a pioneer in child and adolescent poetry. At the beginning, his model was Forough Farrokhzad, a Romantic poet. His poem contains delicate concepts in romanticism. Ebrahimi utilized the characteristics and principles of romanticism according to the child audience. The research at hand can provide a better understanding of this poet and also and indirect understanding of romanticism in Iranian child and adolescent poetry.
the method of This article is Libraries and content description and analysis, witch also provides insight into Ebrahimi's poems of children as well as adapting them to the principles of Romanticism, examining features of romanticism in Ebrahimi's child and adolescent poetry.The outcome of the study points out that properties such as naturalism, rural life, nostalgia, impressionism, individualism, inclination to voyage and adventurism and also his attempt to discover new concepts are some notable features of romanticism in his poems.
Although Persian literature is in many respects different from Western literature, it can not be used to interpret all the specific concepts and terminology of European literature in Persian literature and to search for European equivalents in Persian literature and culture (Jafari, 2007: 11) In contemporary Persian literary currents, there are some obvious features that can be adapted to some Western literary schools. Of course, in facilitating these trends, one should not ignore Western influences from the past, as it wrote: "Renaissance, albeit under the influence of ancient Greece and the Middle Ages, was never a monolithic and purely Western phenomenon. Two long clashes with Islam, one in the Middle Ages, in the form of crusades, and the other in the Renaissance, and in the Ottoman Empire, contributed severely to the West. "(sarvat, 2006: 63)
Romanticism is one of the currents present in contemporary Persian poetry, and the poets have used it consciously or unknowingly. In one of his poems, Shahriyar reminds us that Romanticism came to Iran for the first time through romantic stories, and was considered by poets and writers. Shahriyar, in his poem titled "The Mentioned Names of Iranian Literature and Art", introduces Mirza Ja'far Khamenei as the pioneer in exploiting imaginative and romantic fantasy in Iran, a fantasy that will later be fueled by Nima. (Sadri Nia, 2003: 135) Elsewhere, Mirzadeh Eshaghi, a Revolutionary and Contemporary Poet, has been introduced as the first peak of romanticism in Iran. (Modarresi, 2012: 22)
It seems that in the contemporary Persian poetry, the school of romanticism has been used and more effective in various western literary schools, and its sphere of influence has expanded to the poem of Persian children and adolescents Among the poets of Iranian children and adolescents who have been influenced by romanticism to create poetry for the child and adolescent age groups, Jafar Ebrahimi is known as the "shahed". ebrahami specifically applies some of the characteristics of romanticism, which is suited to the nature of childhood and adolescent poetry, as well as his personal morals. The present paper is responsible for examining these features in Abrahami's poetry.
The main questions of this research are as follows:
Are there any evidence of Romanticism in child and teenage poetry?-
What are the characteristics of romanticism in the poem of Ja'far Ebrahimi? -
Abrahami's Romanticism is Iranian or European type?-
This article also looks at the following goals:
-collecting and analyzing examples of the existing features of romanticism in Ja'far Ebrahimi's poetry.
-Mention the poet's views on the poetry of children and adolescents and their adaptation to the features mentioned in romanticism in his poem.
2. Research Methodology
The research methodology of this research is in the form of library and descriptive and content analysis, and the paper is based on the method of taking notes from written and non-textual sources. In the present article, which summarizes the more detailed research in which authors have found many examples and evidence for Romantic poetry in ebrahami poetry, ten titles of childish and adolescent poetry books of ebrahami have been reviewed, titled: Ab mesle salam (for the age group "C", the end of the school year), Aseman abri nist (for teenagers), Boye gonjeshk(for guidance school), khorshidi inja khorshidi anja (for elementary school years) ghaliye rangin kaman(age group "c and d", years of elementary school and middle school), labkhande shabnamha (age group "C" and "de", years of elementary school and secondary education), sabzpooshe mehraban(for guidance), mesle Yas( For the beginning of the year), ghonchehaye sher(for elementary school years), Baghe sabze sherha (age group "C and D", years of primary school and secondary education) It should be noted that since the publication period of some of the above books is common, in the citations inside the text, the sources are separated by different letters of the alphabet.
Although the influence of the school of romanticism in Farsi adult poetry has been studied so far; However, it seems that no research has ever been done on the subject of child and adolescent poetry and its impact on the school of romanticism. Therefore, the present article can be the window for which, for the first time, it is considered romantic poetry of this audience.
Ja'far Ebrahimi has a romantic tendency in his poetry, and this tendency goes back to his birthplace and his childhood life. The whole childhood of this poet in the village and its beautiful nature passes and his adolescence largely aspires to return to nature and village and childhood. And these wishes make him a romantic poet. Some of the romantic features in his poem, which this article addresses to them They are: 1. Naturalism: In his view, the poet must be drowned in objects and nature and be a part of things and nature. 2. , ruralism: In the view of ebrahimi, the village is a place where its moments are beautiful and pure, and the human being is alert and close to nature. 3. Individualism: Ebrahami is an individual poet, the child of his poem is always on his own. 4. Sensualism: Possesses poetry as a success in expressing feelings and considers poetry to be successful and effective, which is more realistic in expressing the inner sense of the poet. 5- Tendency to Travel: From Ebrahami point of view, poetry has the ability to take us to other times. We can travel through time with poetry and go back in time. So, sometimes, poetry for this poet is a means to escape from the space available and go on a fanciful journey, or even sometimes a tool to report a real and geo-travel. 6- Nostalgia: According to Ebrahimi, he always regrets his childhood, and this may be a big reason for the poet to become his child. 7. Trying to discover new themes and new interpretations: Abrahamid has tried in his poetry, always trying to discover new spaces. And be up to date.
Romanticism is one of the literary currents of the West, which has entered meaningfully from the Constitutional Revolution in Persian poetry. Due to the social conditions of the current Iranian society and the wide extent of the aspects and definitions of romanticism, contemporary poetry has been widely influenced. And in the meantime, the poetry of some child and teenage poets is also influenced by contemporary adult poetry, romantic color and smell. Ja'far Ebrahimi is one of the poets of child and adolescent poetry, which has not eliminated this effect. And this effect could be the result of his pattern at the beginning of the poet's work, from Forough Farrokhzad, who is a romantic poet, with a tendency towards European romanticism. And with this imitation, as well as the features mentioned in this article, it can be said that Ja'far Ebrahimi's romanticism is of a European type. Among the characteristics of romanticism, the presence of some of the features in his poem is more striking: naturalism, ruralism, and nostalgia, which, of course, can be unique in mentioning the nostalgic cases of the poetry, and perhaps in the poetry of children and adolescents, there is no other poet. Ebrahami's extensive coverage of nostalgic issues in his poetry. From other aspects of romanticism in Abrahamic poetry one can refer to sensualism, individualism, tendency to travel, as well as attempts to discover new themes and new interpretations.