نادانی، مقوله‌ای بدون تاریخ ( واکاوی شعر «هُبل» سرودۀ سیّد قطب بر اساس نشانه‌شناسی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار زبان و ادبیات عرب دانشگاه رازی

2 دانشجوی دکترای زبان وادبیات عرب دانشگاه رازی

چکیده

 بدون شکّ از مهم‌ترین رسالت‌های ادبیّات در گذر تاریخ ، بیدارسازی وجدان به خواب رفتۀ مردم بوده است. ادیب همچون تصویرگری ماهر، بازنمودی واقعی از جامعه را نشان می‌دهد. آنچه که در دانش نشانه‌شناسی مهم است چیدمان واژه‌ها و بازتاب آن در آثار ادبی است. گاهی مخاطب با دقّت نظر در کُنه هر متنی متوجّه نوعی ابهام می‌شود. راه برو‌ن‌رفت، خوانش واژها و چیدمان آنها در ساختار این دانش است. پژوهش پیش‌رو سعی دارد، سوژه‌ای از ادبیّات معاصر مصر را با عنوان «هُبل» بازخوانی کند. هدف بازیابی نشانه‌های زبانی است که با استمداد از آنها می‌توان فضای جامعه را بازیافت. واکاوی‌های زبان‌شناختی این سروده مملو از حقیقت‌های ناگفته‌‌ای است که می‌توان از آنها به‌عنوان سندهای غیر قابل انکار تاریخی یاد کرد. داده‌های زبان-شناختی، خبر از شتاب واگرایی مردم به سوی گمراهی دارد. شاعر با بهره‌وری از فعل‌ها، زمان و وجهیّت، زاویۀ دید خود را نسبت به موضوع بیان داشته است. ساختار جمله‌ها، به گونه‌ای است که هرگاه دربارۀ تداوم اندیشه‌های ضلالت‌بار موروثی سخن گفته از جمله‌های اسمیه و هر وقت از رفتارهای جهل‌گرایانۀ نوظهور سخن گفته از جمله‌های فعلیه استفاده شده است. 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ignorance without history (Analysis of poetry hobbal based on semiotics )

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali akbar mohseni mohseni 1
  • Abbas Karimi 2
1 Associate Professor of Arabic Language and Literature Dept, University of razi
2 Ph.D Student of Arabic Language and Literature Dept, University of razi
چکیده [English]

Of the most important tasks Literature has been the awakening  throughout history. In this paper, Imagination poet in the fanfare daily life wearing face masks is significant. In the meantime, it is possible placed a higher value.  to "protest poem" . Because it is full of hidden signs that gave us the opportunity to refresh our events. This approach is only possible through semiotics. This study is the subject of a poem called “Hobbal” of contemporary literature Egypt. “Sayed qhotb” in this poem to advance the it,s goals of many signs has benefited.  One of these signs is iterate the aim of highlighting is used. Linguistic signs suggest accelerating people towards ignorant. Poet the use of verbs, time and modality is trying to imaging of your community. He has been very successful in this occasion. In this poem when the intention was to prove of the nominal stability and the continuation plans in case of a verbal phrases is used.
Semiotics, Sayed quota, hobball, Keywordds
 
    
1-1-Introduction
 
Undoubtedly, the hidden facade of any society can be searched in the context of its literature. Each poet, with the use of special vocabularies, tries to display his own environment. Symbolism is one of the most prominent methods that can be described as the language of the literature. Because this knowledge, by presenting literary works in a linguistic structure, is trying to reveal the hidden aspects of literature. Perhaps in the Egyptian contemporary society, Sayyid Qutb is known as a religious thinker. But in this article, by referring to the semiotics, one of his poems, called "hobal," has been investigated, which shows social concerns and obsession with it. The data from the analysis in the present study suggests that not only the religious aspect, but also its socialism, is more and more clear. His concerns in the social context in this poem suggest interesting points. One of the most important ones is the following: Sayyid Qutb in this poem and in the first step, has expressed the last word. The selection of the title of its poetry, which is a familiar symbol of Arabic history, expresses everything. This choice can not be accidental, but deliberately and consciously refers to a literary protest. His dissatisfaction is clearly shown at the beginning of each piece, and repeats it every time with a newer feature. With this repetition, he had two goals. First, he confess the ideological return and before the advent of Islam. The poet considers the people's perception of religion as a way far from pure Islam. Then he pointed to the people's oblivion and in order to eliminate it, he had no choice Other than to repeat. Perhaps this method is an emphasis on the error path they have chosen. A statistical look at the number of verbs used has new information... Most of the verbs of the poem text are past times. The abundance of this application form in comparison to the present time in the texts reflects the poet's view of the subject. In this way, he has separated the truth of the true religion of Islam from society and people. Verb forms are often news. Maximum use of this type represents the trust of the theologian in relation to the events. That is, the poet himself has seen the events. So the discourse is a kind of report.  Poetry words are more negative. When we separate these words and look at the comparison of their numbers, we will notice the opposition to their meaning.  The desire of the poet is precisely to create a kind of lexical counteraction in the mind of the audience. This trend demonstrates a confrontation between the two opposing sides in society. From al-aharar and al-toghat as two representatives for each of the two opposing poles. The poet Has benefite  nouns wherever he wants to show continuity. As an example, the image of a community that has come out of Pure Islam. Conversely, where his purpose was the expression of new verbs, he used the verb. Like that part that likens people to a flock, Those who have always imitated others with a robe of ignorance. Because nowadays, piety is no sign of excellence, The dollar is covered with respect for them. Vowels are abundant in the text, this application in linguistics is indicative of the heavy atmosphere of society. On the other hand, it might also be a sign of the sorrow of the author. The use of literary arrays such as metaphors suggests such refreshing and refreshing that the poet can reveal his vision and mentality. More metaphors are macneyea and are often Has are tashkhis. The poet created a similarity between the two sides to point out to the Misleading people. Another notation in this poem is the repetition of a particular term. Repetition always has an emphasis. In the shadow of the semiotic components, the atmosphere that dominates the environment, the poet's perspective and their feedback in the literature can be retrieved. In fact, one can answer the question whether the poet's selective ways and words are deliberate? Or unconsciously influenced by temporal and spatial elements? Perhaps with this view some historical and social hidden issues can be found in society. And finally, Until it becomes clear how each affair is influenced by the productive social structure.  
  

1- قرآن کریم. 
2- آقاگل‌زاده، فردوس، فرهنگ توصیفی تحلیل گفتمان و کاربرد‌شناسی، تهران: انتشارات علمی، چاپ اول. 1392ش.
3- اکو، اُمبرتو، نشانه‌شناسی، ترجمه پیروز ایزدی، تهران: انتشارات ثالث، چاپ سوم 1393ش.
4- چدویک، چارلز، سمبولیسم، ترجمه مهدی سحابی، تهران: نشر مرکز .1375ش.
5- جوادی یگانه، محمدرضا و کشفی سیدعلی ، نظام نشانه ها در پوشش، مجلة کتاب زنان، ش 38، صص 62- 87 ، 1386ش. 
6-سیّد قطب، الأعمال الشعریه الکامله، دراسه فی أشعار سیّد قطب تقدیم حسن حنفی، دمشق: مرکز الناقد الثقافی،2007م.
7- زارع، غلامعلی، سیر تحول درونمایه‌های اجتماعی در شعر معاصر ایـران، رسـالة دکتـری زبـان و ادبیـات فارسی، تهران: دانشگاه تربیت مدرس ،1385ش.
8- صفوی، کوروش، از زبان‌شناسی به ادبیّات (1 و2)، تهران: سوره مهر، چاپ سوم،1390ش.
9- طه حسین، من تاریخ الأدب العرب، الطبعه الرابعه، بیروت: دارالعلم للملایین ،1982م.
10- عمیری‌، ربیع بن هادی، مطاعن سیّد قطب، فی أصحاب رسول‏الله، ۱۹۹۷م.
11-الغذامی، عبداالله محمد، تشریح النص، المغرب: المرکز الثقافی العربی (2006م).
12- الصائغ، عبدالله، الصّورة الفنّیّة معیاراً نقدیاً (منحنی تطبیقی عَلَی شعر الأعشی الأکبر)، بغداد: دار الشّئون الثقافیّه، 1987م.
13-فتوحی، محمود، سبک‌شناسی نظریه‌ها، رویکردها و روش‌ها، تهران: انتشارات سخن، چاپ دوم ،1392ش.
14-مشتاق‌مهر، رحمان و بافکر، سردار، شاخص‌های محتوایی و صوری ادبیات غنایی، پژوهشنامه ادب غنایی، سال چهاردهم، شماره بیست و شش، صص182-202، دانشگاه سیستان، بهار و تابستان 1395ش.
15-مهدی‌نژاد، امید و سیّار، محمد مهدی، داداخواست (100شعر اعتراض)، مشهد: انتشارات سپیده باوران، چاپ پنجم، 1391ش.