بازتاب کهن‌الگوی مادر در شعر فروغ فرخزاد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه ازاداسلامی واحد دهاقان

2 گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد دهاقان

چکیده

   کهن‌الگوها پندارهای مشابه ملل مختلفند؛ نوعی تصویر ذهنی جهان‌شمول که می‌توان بر اساس آن شخصیت و فردیت شاعران را ارزیابی کرد. یکی از مهم‌ترین کهن‌الگوها, مادر است که در مظاهر ویژه‌ای جلوه می‌کند. فروغ فرخزاد توانسته است هردو سوی مثبت و منفی این کهن‌الگو را در اثر هنری خود نمایان سازد. هدف اصلی این پژوهش تبیین روند کسب فردیت با ردیابی بازتاب کهن‌الگوی مادر در شعر فروغ فرخزاد است. در این پژوهش با روش تحلیلی و توصیفی و از طریق نقد اسطوره‌گرا به واکاوی عناصر و مظاهر کهن الگوی مادر درشعر فروغ فرخزاد پرداخته شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد مظاهر کهن‌الگوی مادر در شعرهای دورة دوم شاعری او بازتاب گسترده‌ای دارد و به اشکال مختلف از جمله: همذات‌پنداری، مادرزمینی و ادغام با بزرگ‌بانو، مرگ و فنا، بازگشت و بقا و تداوم، نمود یافته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The reflection of the mother's paradigm in ForughFarrokhzad poetry

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Mahmoudi 1
  • raziyeh jamshidi 2
1 Associate Professor of Department Persian Language and Literature, University of
2 Ph.D Student of persian Language and Literature Dept, University of dahaghan
چکیده [English]

  
   The analogues are similar to different nations; a kind of universal mental image that can be used to evaluate the personality and individuality of the poets. One of the most important hangovers is the mother, which appears in a special manifestation. ForoughFarrokhzad has been able to portray both the positive and negative side of this story in his artwork. The main purpose of this research is to explain the process of individualization by tracking the reflection of the mother's allegations in ForoughFarrokhzad's poetry. In this research, by analytical and descriptive method and through mythological critique, the elemental elements and manifestations of the mother's model in ForoughFarrokhzad have been discussed. The results of the research show that the manifestations of his mother's second poem in his poetic poetry reflect a wide variety of forms, including: conceptualization, conceptualization and integration with the grandfather, death and death, return and survival and continuity.     
 
1-1-Introduction
 
 There are different definitions and ideas about myth. Some people consider myths as possible events. From the perspective of others, myths are the allegories of the advent of the world around us. The reflection of myths in the common forms of literary works has led to the formation of a method in literary criticism based on mythology and archeology. A major part of the critique of psychology and mythological critique is devoted to the analysis and interpretation of the poetry. Old Believers highlight the mental images and crystallizes in the universal experiences of mankind, such as birth and death. The mother's hero passes through collective and historical memory and forms in the unconscious of the poet's mind, then reflects in the closest moments when the poet becomes one with his unconscious.
   The present study was carried out using an analytical-descriptive method and explanatory method. With this approach, many of the concepts and elements of women can be traced according to the developmental stages of the mother's development.Accordingly, the research method will be based on mythological critique.
   Forough Farrokhzad is one of the poets whose early motherhood in his poem is a special expression and manifests itself in a negative and positive way. The beneficial features in Forough's poem are expressed in the form of symbols with plants and mothers. From another birthday, in Forough's poem, we encounter a woman whose poems, according to many literary critics, have several meanings and hermeneutics.The concepts and elements of his poetry are in the hall of the symbol, which is rooted in his ethnic culture. Forough Farrokhzad goes beyond individual experiences in some of his poems. Her eloquence shows her in some parts of Farrokhzad's poetry. The expression of his poets comes from a world beyond native memories and social reality.His poetry at this stage is the anthem of the motherland and the great old manhood. He speaks of a woman who is not determined at a specific time and place, but because of the old and dispersed memories of the ages of history, and the whole world has a sign on him. The poet sees himself in all ages and times. In addition to the dispersion of all the poetic feminine particles, at all times, his consistency with flowers and plants and trees strengthens the role of the poet's mother.
    Also, Forough, in his bond with the "great mother," sometimes finds himself, on earth, or in deep bond with the earth. She is the mother of fertility and mother's land, her roots are in her early womb, and the seeds become green. In the "My Beloved" section, he reflects the deepest reflection of his mother's or feminine introspection, which is his unification with the mother-in-law. He sees himself as a growth, life, and advocate. On this basis, the poet (forugh) is the earth, and his mentality is in fact a continuation of the subjectivity of agricultural civilization, which awaits magic virtues and breeding and proliferation. In a broader perspective, the poet maintains, supports and nurtures the love of man.
     When frustration dominates the blight, the negative and harmful aspect of the old pattern of the mother in his poem, for example, when he does not put into the "green" poem, shelters his mother's safe hiding place, is disappointed and goes to the negative side of mother Roy brings. Crossing the collection of "Another Birthday" and in the last poems of Forough, we encounter the poet's moradity and mortality, which has a significant reflection in his poetry. This situation can be derived from the female dimension and deep connection of the poet with the negative side of the mother's story.The principle of provision, as related to birth and life, is also related to death and destruction. Forogh's moradity and death are related to this principle. This is reinforced by the poet's use of the symbolic elements in which death is said to be, the symbolic elements of which are the manifestations of the mother's analogy, such as: wine, lighthouse, night, darkness, cold season, sickle, loneliness, and so on. His genealogy was the result of his deep connection with the layers of the unconscious of his female element. Of course, this does not mean that only women can reach this stage of their deep understanding, and that men are not aware of it, but that the writers intend to indicate the deep connection of the poet with my feminine, and especially the maternal grandfather. Based on what comes from the content of the lyrics, if we look at the horror and non-existence of death, we can see Yong's death as a harmful and evil evil of the mother. But in Forough's poem, death is accompanied by a supreme and transcendental concept. After observing the plants and the earth, the poet looks at death for the purpose of destroying and exalting his female life, which is life-giving. So here, with the poet's distinct and distinctive look at death, death is not harmful elements and displays, but it is a stage and a bridge in which he is able to survive by integrating his own womanhood and self-sacrifice. It seems that attaining the individuality and excellence of the poet in the last stage, he will die. This poet's view is not written only in his literary work, but in the life of the poet, he appears real and real.
   The results of this research show that the mother's formula in the poems of the second part of the poetry of Froogh reflects a wide variety of forms, such as conception, conception and integration with the grandfather, death and death, return and survival and persistence. Jung's theory of relative manifestations can be relative, death, which is a manifestation of the evil of the mother's mother, in the poem of forough stairs or poly for poet's rise and survival. Also, Forough's poetry is feminine in terms of tone, space and thought, and this characteristic reflects the independent and independent personality with himself and his deep connection with the unconscious.The distance that an artist can create between himself and the work of art is a sign of deificationThe signifies the distance with the "self". Art is the language of the subconscious of man, and Forough Farrokhzad has identified his artwork with his approach to his subconscious .

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Archetype
  • Forough Farokhzad
  • earth mother
  • death
  • Myth
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