جریان زمان و انسجام برآمده از آن در روایت شیخ صنعان عطار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دانشگاه کردستان

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه کردستان

چکیده

زمان در مقام عنصر روایی‌ و یکی از عوامل تثبیت فرم می‌تواند با دلالت‌هایی ضمنی به پیوندی «زیبایی‌شناختی- اندیشگانی» منجر شده؛ متن را به انسجام مضاعف برساند. برغم اینکه بسیاری از متن‌های تعلیمی کلاسیک با نوعی نتیجه محوری تولید گردیده و کمتر به دلالت‌پردازی غیر مستقیم با عناصر روایی پرداخته شده است؛ در برخی از روایت‌های داستانی آن عصر، همچون تمثیل شیخ صنعان عطار، نسبتی چشمگیر میان زمان توزیعی روایت با وضعیت، کنش‌های شخصیت اصلی قصه و درونمایه وجود دارد. این نوشتار به شیوۀ توصیفی- تفسیری، جریان زمان در روایت شیخ صنعان را به مثابه عنصری روایی برای تبیین انواع انسجام در آن متن بررسی کرده است. مبنای نظری این نوشتار برای معرفی جریان زمان در سه شکل ترتیب، تداوم و بسامد؛ الگوی ژنت و در بحث زمان در قالب حال اخلاقی سخن والاس مارتین است. نتیجه حاکی از آن است که زمان توزیعی در تمثیل مذکور با انواع زمان پریشی، تنظیم سرعت و تکرارها، منجر به دو سطح انسجامِ ساختاری و اندیشگانی شده است در  این میانه، راوی با تکیه بر حال اخلاقی زمان روایت را متوقف کرده، به شکلی مستقیم اندیشه‌ای را با مخاطب در میان می‌گذارد.   
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The flow of time and coherence emerged in the Attar narrative of Sheikh San'an

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masomeh mantashlou 1
  • Parsa yaghoobi janbesaraee 2
1 PhD student of Persian language and literature University of Kordestan
2 Associate Professor of Department Persian Language and Literature, University of Kurdestan
چکیده [English]

 
 Time as a narrative element and one of the factors of the fixation of the form can lead to implicit implications for the "aesthetic-reflection" link, which translates the text into double integrity. In spite of the fact that many of the classical textbooks have been produced with a kind of pivotal result and are less 
indirectly implied by narrative elements; in some of the narrative narratives of that era, such as the Sheikh San'an Attar allegory, there is a significant relationship between time There is a distribution of narrative with the situation, the actions of the main character of the story and the theme. In this descriptive-interpretive way, this article examines the flow of time in the narrative of Sheikh San'an as a narrative element to explain the types of cohesion in that text. The theoretical basis of this paper is to introduce the flow of time in three forms of order, continuity and frequency; the pattern of genes and in the discussion of time in the moral formulation of Wallace Martin's words. The result implies that the time distribution in the allegoric with all sorts of time, frequency, and repetition has led to two levels of structural coherence and thinking. In the mean time, the narrator, by relying on the moralities, ceases to narrate the time, directly Discuss the idea with the audience.   
 
 
1-1-Introduction
 
Since each narrative is formed in a timely and evolving chain, it is virtually impossible to narrate a chain of events without having time or time relations. Here, the significance and position of the element of time in the narrative Characterized.A remarkable subject in the narrative time and function of the element of time in the narrative of storytelling has always been featured in a variety of landscapes. From the simplest perspective, "narration may occur when events occur, events may narrate immediately after their occurrence, or they may be narrated after the occurrence of the eventual event." The narrator is looking behind and telling the whole chain of events, which is the most common way, with a little reflection on the topics mentioned, is taken in such a way as to be the first type of narration in which the recording and recounting of the events of the story coincided with its occurrence There will be no possibility of deleting invalid dates for the narrator. On the contrary, in the third type, which the narrator will narrate with an accurate and telescopic look at an event that has taken place at a very distant time, he will have considerable power in paying and eliminating void times, and can even accommodate events based on the structure of the story SlowlyIn any case, in the narrative literature of time, meaning is in the light of the chronological relations between the story and the text, and it is linearly inevitably linear. But in practice, although the text is expanded in the line sequence, it is not always consistent with the sequential sequence of the events of the story, and in most cases, the sequence of the linear sequence of the text delivers and leads to various discrepancies.One of the most important theorists on time as a narrative element is the French gardener, which has put forward the most comprehensive discussion of the timing of the narrative text under the incompatibility between the time of the story and the time of the text. In his view, there are three types of time relation between the time of the story and the time of the text as follows: 1. Order: Answering the question "When?" 2- Continuity: Answering the question "When?" And 3- Frequency: Response Asked "How often?". order and arrangment:In many of the narratives, the sequence of narrative events is inconsistent with the linear sequence of events and time. The genette of any disorder of order in the order of expression of events is the time of perestination, and it is divided into two general types of past and present The retrograde divides into a retrograde one. It seems that the narrative returns to the past in the story, and thus the events that have already occurred are described later. In the future, there is a kind of jumping forward, and events that have not yet occurred are cited before its initial events are expressed.The continuity debate also answers the question of how much level of text the story surface is found from? Gene proposes dynamic stability as a criterion for assessing the degree of continuity, and the constant proportion between the continuation of the story and the length of the text assigned to that piece of story, and considering the constant dynamics as a criterion, two accelerates the existence : Positive acceleration and negative acceleration. Assigning a short piece of text for a long time to the story, a positive momentum and assigning a long piece of text for a short period of time is a negative momentum story. The maximum speed of "deletion" and the minimum speed is "descriptive rush". Between these two extremes is the "drama" and "summary or abstract". In the deletion, the zero-volume dynamism corresponds to some continuity of the story. In fact, the elimination of middle events increases the speed of the main events on the text surface, and the surrogate reader will face the events of the story. In other words, the elimination of unnecessary events at the level of the text places the reader in the right place. Frequency is the repetition of an occurrence in the story and the number of the narrative of that incident in the text.According to what has passed, the element of time as one of the main elements of narrative texts not only plays an important role in spreading the narrations of the narrations, but as one of the components of the form, contains implied implications consistent with the subject of the story, the status of the actors, the atmosphere, and Eventually, they are in line with the narrative's theme and showcase them indirectly or add to their quality of supply. In spite of the educational and functional aspects of some of the classic Persian narrative texts that have led to a lack of attention to the form in the new meaning, some of these texts have knowingly or unknowingly used the element of time in an artistic way to serve the representation of the subject. The allegory of Sheikh San'an in Narrath narration contains an impressive relation between the flow of time and the status of the main character of the story and its theme. This ratio, which also serves the educational aspect of the text, is also a mystical thought of the text, which leads to the double coherence of the text.This article seeks to categorize and interpret the coherence derived from it in the analogy in a descriptive-analytical manner, based on the Gerard Genet's model:In the narrat of Attar, the narrator has tried to apply the time element to two levels of coherence in the text. At the first level, according to the genet pattern in relation to the distribution of narrative time, the narrator has been able to respond to the suspensions in the text by means of timing, and, in parallel, to re-establish suspense and tension in order to keep the audience. In addition to these, in the continuity of time, by adjusting the tempo of time and highlighting the statuses and scenes, it reduces the audience's grief, in addition to the forms of repetition in the frequency section of time, some of the story is purposefully targeted Deliver to the audience.The second level of coherence resulting from the distribution of the flow of time in Attar's allegory contains implicit implications consistent with the great themes or some mystical concepts. In such a way, in the order of time, the predictive dispersal time with the predictive approach represented in Sheikh San'an's dreams shows that according to the characteristic in the dream, the abandonment of the will; the Sheikh What kind of mind has left the agency and abandoned the will. In the context of continuing the flow of narration, the narrator, with a special representation of the movement and the speed of narration, has been attempting to change the speed of the narration in accordance with the concept of two terms: if the carpet is concerned, focal point He is a self-taught artist, too, he is slowly following the feat of arrogance, but when it's in the midst of it, the present experience is centered around Sheikh San'an, and the language and time are, according to the sheikh's heaviness, The narrator's influence also affects; therefore, the narrative speed slows down and adds a lot of text. However, the distribution of time in accordance with the status of the main character of the story and its context leads to double cohesion.  
  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Narat
  • Attar
  • element of time
  • Sheikh sanan
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