مؤلفه‌های روایت در سه شعر بلند «اخوان ثالث»با تأکید بر دیدگاه «ژرار ژنت»

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه الزهرا(س)

2 زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه الزهرا(س)

چکیده

«روایت‌شناسی» دانشی جدید و نتیجۀ انقلاب ساختارگرایی در عرصۀ داستان است. در تحلیل ساختارگرایانۀ «روایت»، سازوکارهای درونی متن ادبی بررسی می‌گردند؛ تا واحدهای ساختاری بنیادین کشف شوند. هدف پژوهش حاضر، تحلیل و بررسی ساختار «روایت» در سه شعر بلند رواییِ «مهدی اخوان ثالث»: «قصۀ شهر سنگستان»، «اژدها عفریته‌ای منحوس» و «خوان هشتم» است. در این مقاله تلاش گردیده است، تا بر اساس دیدگاه «ژرار ژنت» به بررسی مؤلفه‌های روایی؛ یعنی «زمان دستوری»، «وجه» و «صدا» پرداخته‌ شود و بر آن است تا یکی از جنبه‌های تحولِ منظومه‌های رواییِ معاصر برشمرده شود. نتیجه این بررسی نشان می‌دهد: «اخوان» در سرودن اشعار رواییِ خود، از ظرفیت‌های«روایت» و «روایت‌گری» بهترین استفاده را نموده است. روایت‌های او به شکل لحظه‌ای و خطی بیان نشده؛ بلکه اغلب با «رجوع به گذشته» شکل گرفته‌اند. وی از «شتاب مثبت» و «ثابت» بهره می‌برد. بسامد حاکم بر این سه منظومه، «بسامد مفرد» است. افعال و کنش‌های هر سه اثر روایی، در زمان گذشته روی داده است. «فاصله» در دو منظومه اخوان، چشمگیر است؛ زیرا راویان آن‌ها «داخل در روایت خود» هستند.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Elements of Narrating in three long poems of “Akhavan Sales” By emphasizing on ideas “Gerard Genette”

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roghayeh Vahabi Daryakenari 1
  • Mahdi Nikmanesh 2
1 Ph.D of Persian Language and Literature Dept, University of Alzahra.
2 Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature Dept, University of Alzahra
چکیده [English]

 
 Narratology is a new knowledge and it is at the result of structuralism revolution in the realm of fiction. In analyzing the structuralist “narrative”, internal mechanisms of literary texts will be discussed, till the internal units are discovered. This study is an analysis of the structure of “narrative” on three long poems of “Akhavan”: “Sangestan City tale”; “Dragon, ominous sorceress”, “Eighth step” .this article deal with “Gerard Genette” Ideas about narrative component: “command Time”, “mode”, “voice”, and tries to study on one of the aspects of evolution of Contemporary narrative poems. The result of this study shows that: “Akhavan” in his narrative poems has used the narrative capacities in a high standard. He hasn’t been expressed his stories in linear and comental order. Most of the time, he uses flash backs. In the three examples of his narrative poems, uses positive and fixed acceleration. The dominant frequence in these three poems, is “Singulative frequency”; even though the “Rrepeatitive frequency” is seen many times. The difference between his two poems, are significant, because their narrators are in their narration.
 

  Introduction
 
Narrative poems have been present in pre-Islamic literature s a continuous process. In contemporary poetry, this gender has a significant presence with some differences. The Difference between Classical and Contemporary Farsi narrative poems is mostly due to the use of "fictional elements". In classical verses, the story spins on the axis of instantaneous events and usually these poems have a simple form and a primitive narrative. Actually, the content and theme of the story of these poems was important in the opinion of past poets and they have paid less to other fictional elements, especially "time" and "type of narration". With the genesis and prevalence of modern novels in the contemporary era, "Fictional elements" and "narration" and "narrative" methods have entered the field of poetries and poems. "Mehdi Akhavan Sales" is one of the most prominent narrative poets in the contemporary poetry that uses the "narration" and "narrative" style in his poems. The purpose of this research is analysis and investigation of the narrative structure in his three long narrative poems; "Sangestan City Tale (Ghesseh Shahr-e Sangestan)", "Dragon ominous Sorceress (Ezhdeha, Efritehie Manhous)" and "Eighth Step (Khan-e Hashtom)" and it intends to show one aspect of one aspect of the evolution of contemporary narrative poems.
 
Research method
The research method is descriptive-analytic, so that firstly we expresse "Gerard Genette" votes on narration and narrative components, includes "Grammatical tense", "mood" and "voice". Then, three long poems of Akhavan Sales are analyzed with respect to these components and the author's narrative capacities are presented.
 
Article discussion
Gerard Gent has distinguished between the three levels of narration including "story", "narration" and "narrate". He believes that the story is tale content, so events occur for character; an order that is often different from what is presented in the narrative. The word "narrative" means the same words on paper, discourse, or text itself that through which the reader makes both story and narration. Narration is a narrated product by a narrator. "Narration" is also a storytelling for the audience and, in fact, the creation of "narration" (Tyson, 1387: 370). Genet focuses on narration; although all three levels interact with each other. He believes that "story", "narration" and "narrate" are in contact with each other through three components of "Grammatical tense", "mood" and "voice". "Grammatical tense" includes the sequence of events in the narrative in terms of time. This arrangement contains the concepts of "order", "duration" and "frequency" (Ibid: 371).
The result of the article
According to the Genette's narrative theory, "Akhavan Sales" has been able to upgrade from the first level of narrative (story) to the second level (narrative) using the "narrative" features. He usually breaks the narrative language of the tales and narrates the story without following the rules of old storytelling. That's why; narrative poems of "Akhavan" will be more similar to the new and modern tale. He has used the following components to cross the first level and create a narrative work.
Grammatical tense
"Order" of narration in the "Sangestan City Tale" and "Dragon; ominous Sorceress" is not in linear form. In other words, there is a difference between "story" and "narrative". The narrator of both poems narrates their story by referring to the past. The time sequence of events in the "story" and "narrative" of the "Khan-e Hashtom" is in two forms. In fact, we are facing with two scenes and two narrators during the story. One is a narration that the narrator narrates for us and it has a linear form. In other words, it has the beginning, the middle and the end. But in the second scene that "Math" quotes it for us, is not a linear narrative. According to this research, "Akhavan" does not express Most of his narratives in a momentary and linear form. He narrates the actual sequence and timing order of the events in the story through the Method of "Back to the Past". Poetry narration in "Dragon; ominous Sorceress" has "Positive acceleration" and "Khan-e Hashtom" has "constant acceleration". Also, we see both "constant acceleration" and "positive acceleration" in the narration of "Sangestan City Tale". So, we can say that "Akhavan" uses from "positive acceleration" and "constant acceleration" in three examples of his narrative poetry, but he does not use from "negative acceleration". Dominant frequency in "Sangestan City Tale" and "Eighth Step" is "singular frequency". Also, it is in the "Dragon; ominous Sorceress" in the form of "frequent frequency". In these three long narratives poems, dominant frequency is "singular frequency". Of course, we can see "frequent frequencies" in some cases. But during three narratives, the poet does not use "recitation frequency".
Mood
"Distance" is high and impressive in "Dragon; ominous Sorceress" and "Eighth Step"; because in both narratives, the narrator is a narrative character. Of course, the "distance" is more in "Eighth Step", because the narrator is the main character of the narration. Also, we have the smallest distance in "Sangestan City Tale", because the narrator is "out of his narration". In other words, the narrator is not a fictional character. The view in "Dragon; ominous Sorceress" and "Eighth Step" is the "inner focus" and it's kind of the "inner focus-homogeneous representation". In this state, adventures are narrated from within the story and they are homogeneous with the characters of the story. Point of view in "Sangestan City Tale" is a form of "external focus'' and it's from the type of "outer focus - heterogeneous representation". In this state, the narrator expresses the story absolutely impartial and without interference, but it's not one of the characters in the story.
Tone and Voice
Verbs and actions of all three narrative works have happened in the past time. The narrators of these stories narrate events after their occurrence. Narrator is "inside in his narrative" and "first person" in "Dragon; ominous Sorceress" and "Eighth Step". Of course, in the "Dragon; ominous Sorceress", the narrator is a secondary character and he is the main narrative character in "Eighth Step". The narrator in the poems of "Sangestan City Tale" is in another form. In other words, he is "whole Knowing" and "out of his narrative". According to the results of this research and with regard to the components of "mood" ("distance" and "view"), it seems that the "narration" and "narrative" modes in the "Dragon; ominous Sorceress" which is considered as a weak poem, is in a higher level than the poems "Sangestan City tale".
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Narrative
  • Gerard Genette
  • Narrative Poetry
  • Three Long Poems of Akhavan Sales
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