آنیمای معشوق در غزل های عطار بر پایۀ نقد کهن الگویی یونگ

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد نیشابور

2 استادیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد نیشابور

چکیده

     کهنالگوی آنیما، یکی از اصطلاحات بنیادی در روانشناسی یونگ است که در ناخودآگاه فردی و جمعی نوع بشر جای گرفته و تجسم تمامی گرایشهای زنانه در روح مردبه شمار میرود. یکی از نمودگاههای اصلی ناخودآگاه بشری و به تبع  آن، آنیما، هنر و ادبیات است. در شعر کهن فارسی، به ویژه غزلهای عطار، این کهننمونه بیشتر در قالب معشوق جلوهگر شده است که در تحقیق حاضر با روشی توصیفی- تحلیلی بررسی میگردد. نقد کهنالگویی غزلهای عطار منجر به کشف ماهیت، ویژگی و نقش اسطورهها در جهانبینی شاعرانۀ او میشود. آنیما در غزلهای شاعر، روساختی جسمانی و ژرفساختی معنوی دارد و به نوعی ازلی و ابدی و متعلق به همۀ انسانهاست .
معشوقی که عطار در نظر دارد، همسو با دیدگاه یونگ ،غالباً در خواب و رؤیا ظاهر میشود و بیداری مانع تداوم این دیدار است. آنیما در نگاه شاعر، دو وجه دارد: مثبت که عامل اصلی کمال آدمی و منفی که مایۀ نابودی اوست. عطار برای تبیین هرچه بهتر معشوق مورد نظر خود از تصاویر کهننمونهای متعددی همچون «درخت، پرنده، پری، ماه، خورشید و بت )صنم(» بهره گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Beloved's Anima in Attar's Ghazalyyat (Based on Jung's archetypal criticism)

نویسندگان [English]

  • azadeh Aghraniargi 1
  • parvindokht mashhoor 2
1 Ph.D. student of Persian language and literature of Islamic Azad University, Neishabour Branch
2 Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur Branch
چکیده [English]

. Introduction
the most important term of Yung's psychology is the oldest example that has various types such as: self, hero, shadow, mask, anima, animus and old wise man. Among the ancestors of the samples, what is said in the present article is Anima, "the elemental element of the embodiment of all the psychological tendencies of feminine in the soul of man, such as: feelings, ambiguous mood, prophetic revelations, irrational sensitivities, the ability of personal love, feelings Towards nature, and finally, relationships with the unconscious. " (Jung, 1377: 270) Anima has two positive and negative sides. The positive side of it will make people achieve excellence, perfection and individuality. On the contrary, the negative motive of Anima, the annoyance of the human body and beyond, is the cause of his destruction. In the classical Persian literature, Anima is the same fancier fanfare. Attar, in his sonnets, has always spoken of a lovers who, in the dream and awakening of the kingdom of his mind, always calls him to himself. Hence, Anemian signs can be examined in his poem.
2. Research method
the present study is descriptive-analytic. In order to co-ordinate the discussed topics, the old ideas of Jung's model of Anima are firstly classified as Anima. Then, with regard to the components described by Jung, the signs of Anima in the lyrics of Attar and the character of the mistress of tracing, have been reviewed and compared. To illustrate Jung's views on his books, he has also used credible sources to analyze his views.
3. Discussion
in the ghost of Attar, Nishapouri, she has appeared in five cases, which are referred to below:
3-1. Beloved and Individual
in the process of individuality, man dies of "me" and reaches "himself," or his own original self. (Jung, 1377: 245). In the writings of Attar of Neyshaburi, the descriptions given from the joinal stage are very similar to the process of individuality. In Islamic mysticism, they are told to someone who "has joined in God and is related to ethics ... [also] is connected with lack of perception." (Goharin, 1388: 10/191) In Attar's eyes, the lover at this stage, due to the affection of the beloved Anima, reaches the peaks of spiritual growth. As a result of the removal of the veil curtains, he reveals some factual facts about him and deserves the human personality aspects He will emerge.
3-2. Beloved and Freamkhani
the ancient presence of the beloved Anima in the ghosts of Atar is very prominent, especially when the poet deals with the emotional experiences he experiences in his unconscious. Experiences that are present in the individual entity of Attar, but as a common heritage to other people, are worth attention. The poets use the various tools to describe these experiences. "Therefore, the poetic tools, the best example of pursuing emotional patterns in individual lives and poetry themselves, are the most important venue for exploration of contemporary human experiences with ancient patterns of the past generation." (Horri, 2009: 177) On this basis, the presence of the beloved Anima in the poetry of Attar is the common heritage of humanity that has come from the distant past to the unconscious of Attar, and he has described various aspects of it in the form of poetry. One who loves the hearts of all the lovers of the world and speaks to him about every whim and dowry.
3-3. Expression of the Beloved in Dream and Dream
Jung believes that, because Anima is an "inner side" of the soul, (Allner, 1993: 58), it always becomes dreamy and dreamy. (Jung, 1368: 109) Attar, too, often speaks of a lover in the guise of ghosls, which appears to him in an unconscious manner and can communicate with him in his dreams. A visit to a beloved in the Valley of Dreams is a dream that he loves to accomplish, waiting for his life. The poet believes that the person who succeeds in seeing a manifestation of Anima is beloved, the heat of love will make all of his infidels believe in faith.
3-4. Spirituality and eternal and eternal beloved
Beloved Anima, in the eyes of Attar, acts like a rescuer who, in moments of frustration, cries for a man's existential shout and brings him back to life. Yong also believes that "whenever a man's reasonable minds fail to recognize the truths that are hidden in his subconscious, he is helpless to bring them out. Even the role that feminine feminism plays in the matching of the male's mind with intrinsic values ​​and thus makes the way more inferior to the angles is more critical. " (Jung, 1377: 286) From the viewpoint of Attar, his beloved has a life-giving spirit, which he even uses, and Moses possesses insight. Anima of the beloved in the sonnets of Attar, when he reveals himself, appears the new doors of the universe of meaning, and all the physical states of the human body are transformed into the Enlightenment of his devotion.
3-5. the Negative Way of Beloved
the beloved Anima appears in two different forms: sometimes negative and annoying, and sometimes positive and calming. This feature is in line with Jung's approach (Shamsa, 1370: 231), which states that the male psychological man in this board mentions men in a destructive game, and that the effect of this psychic trick is manifested in all male conversations, and freedom Exercise and emotional effects of the sexually transmitted genitalia. (Jung, 1377: 284) The figure Attar provides to his beloved is sometimes accompanied by love and love, and it depicts an ideal image of it. Sometimes, he also reveals his bloodsucking up and his negative side.
4.results
Anima is the embodiment of the female soul tendencies of the man. Attar, as a faithful and mystic poet, speaks of a lovers who have a spiritual and profane structure. This is apparent in light of the metaphoricalness of the mystic language. In Attar's eyes, the lover, relying on the attention of the beloved Anima, reaches to the peaks of perfection and spiritual growth. As a result of the removal of the veil curtains, he reveals some factual facts about him and deserves his human personality. Find out The lover has a certain path in the ghazals of Attar; it means that he first involves terrestrial concepts, and in line with the approach of the lover (solicitor) to the individuality stage, the epistemic aspect of it is added, and eventually, in a final destination It finds only that it contains spiritual truths. He has made great contributions to Pierre Farzaneh this time. The presence of the beloved Anima poetry in the poetry of Attar, as a common heritage of human type, has come from the distant past to the poet's unconscious, and he has mentioned it using the artistic means of poetry. Jung describes the manifestation of Anima in two modes of sleep and dream. Attar also often speaks of a livelier who appears to be in a state of indifference to him and communicates with his dreams. Along with Jung's approach, Anima's beloved in Attar's eyes, as a savior, in the moments of despair, he casts out to the cry of the existential of man and returns him to the cycle of life. This approach illustrates the positive and clear functions of Anima's beloved. Attar has mentioned the negative qualities of Anima. The poet addresses to his inner self, that if there is a confrontation, I will be disturbed and astonished, and that sadness will come across me.
 
 
 
 
References
- Anousheh, Hasan, Encyclopedia of Persian Literature, 1Edition, Tehran: Islamic Culture and Guidance Publishing and Printing Organization, 1997.
- Allner, I, A Jungian interpretation of Goeeth’s Faust with special emphasis on the individuation process, NewYork: Syracuse university, 1993.
- Attar Neyshabouri, Faridal-Din Mohammad, Divan, 13Edition, Taking Part and Correcting Taqi Tafazoli, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural, 2011.
- Bozaorg Bigdeli, Saeed and Poorabrisham, Ehsan, "The Review and Analysis of Sheikh San'an's Tale, Based on the Thought of the" Individual Process "Jong," The Chapter of Mystical and Mythological Literature, 7, 23, pp. 38-9, 2011.
- Bahrevar, Majid et al., "Ancient reading of the Mantegh al-Ta'ir Attar", Literature and language publication of the Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, 17., no. 36, pp. 160-135, 1393.
- Chimel, Anne Marie, Decoding of Divine Verses, Second Edition, Translation by Abdul Rahim Govahi, Tehran: Islamic Culture Publishing, 2003.
- Cooper, J.C., Illustrated Culture of Traditional Symbols, First Edition, Translation by Malihe Karbassian, Tehran: Farshad, 2001.
- Davydian, Haratoon, "A Psychological Analysis of the Sea in Attar's Works", Kelk, No. 85 and 86, pp. 178-167, 1376.
- Dubokur, Monique, John's Codes, Translation by Jalal Sattari, Tehran: Center, 1373.
- Eliadeh, Mircha, Resale in the History of the Religions, 2Edition, Translated by Jalal Sattari, Tehran: Soroush, 1997.
- Fordham, Frida, Introduction to Jong Psychology, 1Edition, Translation by Dr. Hossein Yaghoobpoor, Tehran: Oja, 1995.
- Goharin, Sadeq, Explanation of Sufism, c. 10. 1Printing, Tehran: Zavvar, 2009.
- Gurien, Wilfred et al., Guide to literary critique approaches, Translated by Zahra MihanKhah, Tehran: Ettala'at, 1370.
- Horry, Abolfazl, "The Old Function of the Pattern in Classical and Contemporary Persian Poetry", the Mystical Literary and Mythological Journal, 5th Year, 15th, pp. 33-9, 2009.
- Joghatayi, Sadegh and Ansari Pouya, Mohammad, "Ancient analysis of the model of Zal and Roodabeh", Lyric Literature Research Center of Sistan and Baluchestan University, 13 th, 24 th, pp. 76-59, 1394.
- Jong, Carl Gustavo, four example examples; mother, rebirth, soul, mask, first print, translated by Parvin Faramarzi, Mashhad: Astan Quds Razavi, 1989.
- ___________, its mental and energy nature, translation by Parviz Omidvar, Tehran: Behjat, 1374.
- ___________, Man and his symbols, translated by Mahmoud Soltanieh, Tehran: Jami, 1998.
- ___________, Psychology and Alchemy, C 2, 2Edition, Translated by Parvin Faramarzi, Mashhad: Astan Quds Razavi, 1999.
- ___________, the Psychogenesisof MantalDisease. Turns, R.F.C. Hull, Vol 3, 2nd ed, Bollingen Series xx, New York: Pantheon Books, 1960 a.
- ________ , the Archetype and the collective unconscious, Turns. R.F.C. Hull, Vol 2, 2nd ed, Bollingen Series xx, New York: Princeton Princeton University Press, 1960 b.
- Makarik, Irnarima, Encyclopedia of Contemporary Literary Theories, Translation by Mehran Mohajer & Mohammad Nabavi, Tehran: 2005.
- Poorkhaleghi Chatroodi, Mahdakht, Shahnameh tree, Mashhad: Astan Quds Razavi, 1381.
- Salahi, Asgar and Eshghi, Jafar, "Examining the Anima Impressions in Literature and Myths," Mystical Literary and Mythological Journal, vol. 11, No. 40, pp. 289-263, 1394.
- Sattari, Jalal, Shade of the Prophet, Second Edition, Tehran: Taheri, 2006.
- Shamisa, Sirus, A Look at Sepehri, Tehran: Morvarid, 1370.
- _________, Story of a Soul, Sixth Edition, Tehran: Ferdows, 2004.
- Shamloo, Saeed, Schools and Theories in Personality Psychology, Tehran: Roshd, 2003.
- ShayeganFarr, HamidReza, Literary Criticism, First Edition, Tehran: Dastan, 2001.
- Zarinkoub, Abdolhossein, Literary critique, 3edition, Tehran: Amirkabir, 1361.
- Yawari, Hura, Psychoanalysis and Literature (two texts, two humans, two worlds), first edition, Tehran: History of Iran, 1374.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attar
  • lyrics
  • Jung
  • Archetype
  • Anima
  • beloved