فیضی فیاضی و غزل غنایی وی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه کاشان

2 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه کاشان

چکیده

     فیضی فیاّضی از فارسیسرایان بزرگ هندوستان و از پایهگذاران و پیشگامان سبک هندی است که در همة قالبهای شعری اعم از قصیده، غزل، مثنوی و.... هنرنمایی کرده است .سرودههای او گنجینة پرباری برای بررسیهای گوناگون ادبی، زبانی، فرهنگی است. از پربسامدترین موضوعات در اشعار او به ویژه غزلهایش، موضوعات و مضامین غنایی است. پرسش اصلی در این پژوهش این است که فیضی به کدام یک از مضامین غنایی بیشتر توجّّه داشته است و این گونه مضامین در غزلهای وی چه جایگاهی دارند؟ در پاسخ به این پرسش به شیوة تحلیلی و توصیفی کوشیدهایم تا مهمترین مضامین غنایی غزلهای فیضی را بررسی کنیم و به گونهای دستهبندی شده بازنماییم.
در این بررسی این نتیجه حاصل شد که غزلهای فیضی از یکسو، پر از تصویرها و مضامین نو استتت و از دیگر ستتو، دربردارندة کم و بیش همة مضتتامین غنایی  عرفان، طنز و انتقاد اجتماعی ،بومیگرایی، مفاخره، مدح، شکوائیه، بهاریه و ...بهویژه عشق و مسائل و مقولات وابسته بدان می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Faizi Fayyazi and his lyric sonnets

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammadmostafa Resalatpanahi 1
  • seyyed ali rohani 1
  • seyed mohammad Rastgo 2
1 Ph.D student in Persian language and literature of Kashan University
2 Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature at Kashan University
چکیده [English]

introduction
The presence of Persian poets in Iran, on the one hand, and Indian poets, on the other hand, have created a vast part of Iran's literary heritage in the country and will make India one of the most influential centers of Persian language and literature abroad. (AbdulAmir and Imami, 1393: 124) Sheikh Abolfaiz Faizi Fayyazi (1004-954 AH), a famous poet of the Indian subcontinent, and poet laureate of AkbarShah Gurkani court, known as Faizi Dakani, the outstanding poets and writers of the tenth century and the first few years of the eleventh century.Almost all the literary and historical commentators and authors have praised his art and manner of expression, and his genius in poetry and other arts.Apart from the many prose writings, four Mathnavi remained that  immitated from the Nizami Ganjavi and also divan poetry.(For more information on his life and circumstances, See: Safa, 1369: 2/838, and Hojjati, 2012: 4/2012)His divan poetry, besides the many independent values, is the first-hand source for studying Persian language in the Indian subcontinent.The majority of this divan is his sonnets.Faizi’s poetry, especially its sonnets, have inspired a collection of what is called the lyric poem.Matters like biography, wine description, opportunity, springtime, morning description and other manifestations of nature, death, sadness and happiness derived from the events of the time, blasphemy, critical satire, patriotism and indigenousness, praise and compassion, wisdom and mysticism, shitah, self-esteem and ... also have a lot of reflections in his poem.
2. Research Methodology
This research is based on analytical-descriptive methodology. To do this, first all the lyric themes contained in poems have been written with different evidence on separate flasks.Subsequently, based on the content analysis approach, and taking note of the library resources related to the lyric literature and poetry styles, each single theme has been analyzed from different perspectives.
3- Discussion
Lyric poetry reflects the poet's emotions and sense or feeling. According to Professor Shafiei, "Lyric poetry is speaking of personal feelings, provided that we take into account the broadest concepts of the two words of feeling and personality" (Shafi'i Kadkani, 1353: 112)In Persian literature, the widest horizons of meaning are the horizon of lyric poems.At a glance, poetry of love, philosophy, mysticism, religion, parody, praise, nature descriptions are all examples of  lyric poetry. (The same: 113).This kind of poetry has a wide range of meanings and poetic themes."From love and youth to aging and death, sadness and happiness from the events of the day, praise, glory, khamriyah to literary flaws such as slip and riddle, blessings, nature, etc. Therefore, lyric poetry is one of the most diverse forms of Persian poetry."(Rastegar Fasa'i, 1381: 151-149)
Since this type of poetry is indicative of the state, deep feelings and burning, it’s therefore the most subtle and most valuable type of poetry.Although poetry is not restricted and enclosed in a particular form of poetry, it’s seen in all forms, such as ode, sonnet, mathnavi, quatrain, lyrical mathnavi’s and especially shaghiname,most prominent feature is sonnet and romantic poems, Particularly the Persian sonnet is a mirror which can be seen mix of different types of lyric themes.
In the era of Faizi, lyric sonnet was undergoing a variety of changes, and especially imagination and making themed in that particular place.The poets of this age are looking for new meanings and imagination."As we know, sonnet is in principle the  lyric poetry, the main theme of the sonnet has always been love and being in love, but in the Hindi style sonnet, the theme has not been taken into range.As a result, every subject has entered into sonnet.Another point in the importance of this style that it has been able to break some of the subject matter of a poem.The poet has used all things and objects and phenomenas around him to find theme and meaning."(Shamisa, 1373: 184-183) .Faizi’s poetriesare full of new Exquisite themes.His prominent features and attributes are creating themed.Renovation of Clichy Images,battle Images in lyric images.
4- conclusion
Faizi is one of the most prominent lyric poet in the Indian landand his divan, especially his sonnets, is one of the most prominent texts of Persian literature in the Indian subcontinent.The lyric sonnet in the era of Faizi had undergone various developments, and in particular a field for imagination and theatrical creation and illustration. From what we have come to light, it is evident that Faizi in the sonnet -  that one of the most important manifestations of lyric poetry, in its most important form, -has used all the lyric themes with high frequency and his divan is full of exuberant lyric themesparticularly topics such as mysticism and related categories, nativeism,indication of Hindu customs, glory and slander, humor and criticism, exhortation, guilty and self-esteem.The central theme of his poem is love and issues related to various affiliates, accompanied by new and unobtrusive images and interpretations, as it has called its "love book".
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Faizi Fayyazi
  • lyric poem
  • Sonnet
  • Love