عنوان مقاله [English]
The criticism of psychology in the contemporary era, especially based on the Yung theories has opened a new threshold toward the literary issues. Since love is one of the leading and complicated topics of the human’s psyche. We have investigated the archaic love in the Sultan snake through the archaic criticism. We intended to uncover the internal layers of the text for the readers to comprehend and enjoy the text and introduce a sample to interpret the similar works from this point of view simultaneously. The play called Sultan Snake by Bahram Beyzaiee is one of the various text in which the archaic love has been reflected and has been written with the adaptation of a magic legend called “The drunked Mirza and Bibi Negar”. (Nemat Tavoosi, 2014: 87) The narration of it has been brought by Samad Behrangi in the collection of Azarbaygan legend (Rahmanyan, 2007: 60) and Bahram Beyzaiee has rewritten the legend in the form of a play. The narrator first indicates the mythological atmosphere in the story and awakens the mind of the reader that “the originality of this peculiar story has remained from a far long past” (Beyzaiee, 2003: 504) and this conception is also tangible and clear in the speech of the king which tells the his sovereignty is a territory that “one side stretches to Jabels and Jabelqa and another side stretches up to China” (et al 504). The narrator also indicates to romantic context of it vividly. Since “Beyzaiee and Yung both have intention toward their unconsciousness” (Reyhan, 2001: 49). We intend to answer the following questions while analyzing the archaic love in the Sultan Snake play. To which archaic love of Yung each character of the story adapt with?
- How has the archaic love been dramatized all through out the Sultan Snake play?
This research has been done in a descriptive- analytical and data analysis based on information gathering instrument, library, documenting and note taking. The theoretical basis of this research revolves around the Yung’s and Joseph Cambel’s attitudes and works that the conception of the archaic in the Sultan snake play has been analyzed based on their thought and ideas.
3) Main discussion
Mythological criticism in the contemporary era is mainly based on the theories of Yung and Cambel. On the Yung’s point of view, art and literature are areas for revealing the mass unconsciousness and he believes that “a part of the personality is related to consciousness and some factors we have to confirm to be able to explain their existence. These factors are unconscious” (1991: 77) and Yung divides the unaware psyche of the human in to two categories: mass unaware and individual unaware and believes that the archaic form the mass unaware from which many of the unconscious behaviours of human would be shaped, since the archaic are permenant landmarks marked and reflected in the heart of every human (Kazazi, 1993: 74).
The number of the mass archetype unconscious is so vast. One prominent archetype which has become so visible in the mythological texts is the love archetype. The love archetype has different images and always found new forms and clothes all through out the human community. Love myth has found a different reaction in the various cultures of human being. The mundane love in its oldest form is shaped in the shape of Adam and Eve, because Yung believes that Adam and Eve are the metamorphic sister of the old human who revived themselves with power of love (Yung, 2002:367). The prospects of the love archetype are being shown in its best form in the shape of Anima and Animos. Anima and Animos are two psychic archetype of human, that means every body intends to reveal the opposite gender features, although “men considers only themselves as man and women vice versa”, but the reality of psychology expresses the fact that human is a bisexual entity (Senford, 7: 1388). From Yung’s point of view “based on an old narration Adam has been bisexual before Eve” (Yung,2002: 367). The analysis of love archetype in the Sultan snake play has been analysed and evaluated in relation with the sage archetype and the process of individualism in which every character in the play symbolizes one Yung archetype.
The conceptions of archetype of Yung in the contemporary era have made the literary works into a new study. Love is one of the most prominent archetypes of human which has been hidden from the early creation in the existence of human and has been expressed in myths and books. From Yung’s point of view, human is bisexual and its existence is shaped with two parts called Anima and Animos and the human psyche has always intended to join to its lost half. The apparent image of love in Sultan snake of Bahram Beyzaiee which is a mythological and romantic literary work expresses itself in the relationship between miss Negar and Sultan snake and this opposing couple can be a symbol for all the imaginable opposing couples which have been separated from one principle an d a gap has been created all through out the history and in today’s world, Anima and Animos intend to join together. From Yung’s view, the love phenomenon is justifiable with the idea of Anima and Animos and all people seek to be attracted by their opposing sex which reflects their internal features. This conception in “Sultan snake” play has been revealed within the characters miss Negar and Sultan snake and the friar who is the symbol of sage archetype in the play. He picked them in form of an apple which was the symbol of pregnancy and showed to their parents and the children were supposed to marry with each other through the recommendation of the friar to reach their ultimate level of psyche that can reach the process of individualism with the help of the love by Anima and Animos, of course with elixir of love, Sultan Snake passes from his shadow archetype which was formed in the character of sheriff and finally copes with it. Also, the two main heroes of the play unveil in the love journey. It is necessary to explain that the mask of Sultan snake is coetaneous which is necessary for dominating others and he wears it until he reaches to his ultimate goal (beloved), puts it away. Miss Negar also passes the love area in which she wears seven pairs of shoes and clothes and makes them threadbare. She also abandons her archetype which is “to be the minister’s daughter”. Yung believes that the process of individualism and climax have been attained in the Sultan snake play in the shadow of love archetype.
1- Beyzaiee ,Bahram, divan Namayesh (1&2), 1 st publish, Tehran: Niloofar, 2004.
2- Bilsko. Richerd, Young's Thought , translated by HosseinPayande, 3 rd publish, Tehran: Ashyan. 2008.
3- Boker ,Monikdu, secrets of live spirit , translated byjalalSattari, 2nd publish, tehram :1998.
4- Cambel, Joseph, Life adjacent to the myths, translated by Hadi Shahi, 1st publish, Tehran: Dustan, 2016.
5- __________, Megafaced champion, translated by Shadi Khosropanah, 6th publish, Mashhad: Sunflower, 2015.
6- Daad ,Sima , glossary of literary terms, 1 st publish, Tehran: Pearl , 1991.
7- Dehghani , Mohammad, Temptation of love, 1 st publish, Tehran : JavanchRoshd, 2008.
8- Dorojmon ,Dani, Myths of love, translated by jalalsattai, 1 st publish, Tehran: Neshaneh, 2007.
9- Ferdowsi, Abulqasem, Shahnameh, published in Moscow, 5th volume, Tehran: phoenix, 1999.
10- Fist, j and Gregory j fist, Theories of personality, translated by Yahya SeyedMohammadi, 6th publish, Tehran, psyche, 2011.
11- Fordham, Farida, A preface to Yung psychology, translated by Masoud Mirbaha, Tehran: Ashrafi, 1977
12- Frum, Eric, The art of loving, translated by Puri Soltani, 30th publish, Tehran: pearl, 2015.
13- Gholami, Zolfaghar and Rahimi, Sima, “The process of individualism is Rostam and Soharb”, two quarterly in Persian language and literature, 78th volume, from page 115 to 145, 2015.
14- Gurin, Wilfred, El. Liber, Erl, Gi, Wilengham, John Er an d Morgan, Li, A guide to the literary criticism approaches, translated by Zahra Mihankhah, 4th publish, Tehran: Information, 2004.
15- Hall, Kalvin an d Vernon Nirdbi, Principles of the analytical psychology of Yung, translated by Mohammad Hossein Moghbel, Tehran: Jahad Daneshgahi, 1995.
16- Johnson, Robert, Romantic love, translated by Baraneh Emadyan, 1st publish, Tehran: Tavoos, 1999.
17- Kazazi, Mirjalaloddin, Dream, Epic, myth, 1st publish, Tehran: Venter, 1993.
18- Mirbagheri fard, Aliasghar, Agha Hosseini, Hossein , Nasre Esfahani, Mohammadreza Vahghi, Maryan, The forbidden fruit in the contemporary poetry, Persian language an d literature quarterly, 172 volume, from page 93 to 120, 2012.
19- Mitford, Miranda Buruss, Picture encyclopedia of symbols and signs, translated by Masumeh Ansari and Habib Bashirpour, 1st publish, Tehran: Shayan, 2015.
20- Mahmoodi, Mohammad Ali, Reyhani fard AliAsghar, " Analysis of the archetype and handmaiden in Masnavi based on Yung view" , Research magazine of Sistanand Baluchestan university, 18th, from page 145 to 166, 2012Mohammadpour, Esmael, “The visible lost half”, literature and languages, 52nd volume, from page 70 to 73, 2007.
21-Morono, Antonews, Yung, God and the Modern human, translated byDarius Mehrjuiee, 6th publish, Tehran: Genter, 2011.
22 - Mohammad pour , Esmael, “ The visible lost half ”, literature and languayes ,52nd volum,from pays 70 to 73,2007 .
23-Nemat Tavoosi, Maryam, Reciting the olramatized play of a magic legend, Sultan snake by Bahram Beyzaiee, Theatre special quarterly, 59th volume, from page 85 to 102, 2014.
24-Rahmanian, mohammad, “Bahram Beyzaiee”, play wright, Simia, 2nd volume, from page 53 to 64, 2007.
25-Reyhani, farzin, “Yung and 3 reading”, play, 115 and 116 volume, from page 48 to 51, 2009.
26-Sattari, Jalal, “Three basic concepts in the psychology of Yung”. Sociology letter, 3rd volume, pages 127-150, 1968.
27-_________, Myths of love and loving in some Persian love book, 1st publish, Tehran: Mitra, 2009.
28-Senford, John, Hidden comrade, translated by Firozeh Nivandi, 7th publish, Tehran: Afkar, 2014.
29-Shamisa, Syrus, A tale of a ghost, 2nd publish, Tehran: Ferdows, 1995.
30-Shoali, John, Alenger Brown, Dictionary of symbols, 3rd volume, 1st publish, Tehran: Jeyhoon, 2003.
31-________, Alenger Brown, Dictionary of symbols, 5th volume, 1st publish, Tehran: Jeyhoon, 2008.
32-Sholtz, Duen, “Yung pottern of individualized human”, translated by Giti Khoshdel, Arash, 21st volume, pages 72 to 92, 1980.
33-Taraghi, Goli, The greatest woman, 1st publish, Tehran: Roshanfekran, 2007.
34-Warner, Rex, Thesis of the world myth, translated by Abolqasem Esmaeelpour, 4th publish, Tehran: myth, 2010.
35-Yahaghi, Mohammad jafar, Dictionary of mythology, 3rd publish, Tehran: Farhang moaser, 2010.
36-Yavari, Hoora, Psychotherapy and literature, 1st publish, Tehran: Iran history publication, 1995.
37-Yung Carl Gustav, Four physical flesh, translated by Parvin and Fereydoon Faramarzi, 3rd publish, Mashhad: Behnashr publication, 2011.
38-_________, Humand and his symbols, translated by Mahmood Soltanieh, 1st publish, Tehran: Jaami, 1998.
39-_________, Looking at the world, translated by Jalal sattari, Tehran: Toos, 1993.
40-__________, Psychology of religion, translated by Foad Rohani, 3rd publish, Tehran : scientificand cultural, 1991.
41-__________, Psychology of the unconscious id, translated by Mohammad Amiri, 3rd publish, Tehran: Scieatific and cultural, 1993
42-__________, Reply to Jacob, translated by Foad Rohani , 1st publish , Tehran: 1971.
43-__________, The secret of connection, translated by Freydoon and Parvin Faramarzi , 1st publish, Mashhad: Behnashr publication , 2002.
44 -Zeimara, Mohammad and Seyhoon, Farideh, “Analytical view on thelove myth in old cultures based on Hafez thought, literature and language”, 20th volume, pages 745 to 757, 1992.