عنوان مقاله [English]
Sa’di, famous poet of 7th century AH, was known not only for his valuable books: Boostan and Golestan, but also mostly for very beautiful and lovely Lyrics. Content of his poems were rich and full of public culture. One of the most important and outstanding point in his poem is his verbal artistic usage. (Shamshirgarha, 2009:123). Simplicity and fluency of language, being both simple and impossible simultaneously, also his beautiful contents of lyrics has made him famous for general and specific audience.(Khalili Jahantigh et al, 2010:81). Sa’di in Golestan and Boostan shows his proficiency in narration, and describing Pleasant and lovely content in Lyrics. Also there are signs of narrative elements. A narrative poem is the oldest one and narrate a historical event or story (Da’d, 1996: 185). Usually, Masnavi style is used for narrating stories and events but narration in other poem styles such as lyric can be seen.
At the beginning, narrative lyric started in Roodaki’s poems. In other words he , as father of Persian poem, was the origin of narrative lyrics. More developed type of narrative lyrics in each structures (description, narration and dialogue) was observed in poems of Sa’di, Attar, Molavi and Hafez which any of these poets improve it in context and style (lovely, mystical, lovely-mystical) to its top level. (Roohani and Mansouri, 2007:33). Totally, one can say that a narrative lyric is a lyrics follow a specific form and geometry which define as introduction, body and conclusion and poet describe a short event through these part (Heidari, 2007: 33) In fact, poet like a novel writer represent an event or narrate an accident. He sometimes describes himself, sometimes his beloved and her beauties for audience and sometimes talks with other beloved or person and narrates at the same time. Since in Sa’di’s Lyrics, both self-describing and describing beloved characteristics can be seen, this research tries to answer questions such as : which narrative elements are observed in Sa’di’s Lyrics and what patterns does he follows?
2- Research methodology
The research method is based on descriptive-analytical one with a narratology attitude. Data gathering was in library form which was analyzed via Content analysis method. Ghazaliat was the research domain and after separating lyric-stories, narration patterns and structures were studied.
The inclusion of all the narrations of Sa’di’s lyrics in a collaborative model is very difficult and somewhat impossible. But several narratives - which are more similar to each other - can be put together in a single category and show a common structure. Each narrative has three parts: one is the initial state, which is usually descriptive, in which it introduces individuals or the narrative environment. This section can be appreciated and not referred to. The second part of the incident or the main events is based on the basis of the narration of the ghazal. The third part is the result of story and narration (Gravel, 2009: 91), which is also the basis for the study of ghazals. Accordingly, there are three common patterns or structures in most of Sa’di’s lyrics.
The first pattern: Anecdote
In this template, the poet speaks an adventure or defines an anecdote. Since the format of the ghazal is confined to the limitations of the verses, sometimes the poet refers to the events he uses, such as the ghazall 156, which refers to love stories in the first to fourth episodes, and then the story of his love.
Pattern two: Descriptive
In this model, the focus of the events is on description or description. In fact, the description of the circumstances, characteristics, and status of a person are expressed or described by the states and merits of the beloved. The poet may also describe something other than himself and his beloved; the description may be either living or inanimate, but in any case the poet describes his condition, condition and condition. Like the lyric 80, which is the name of the beloved.
Pattern Three: Addressed
Many of Sa'di's lyrics are based on the message. In this pattern, the narrator addresses a person and speaks to him. Of course, in Sa'di's poem, usually a two-way conversation is not formed, and only a short word can be exchanged. The narrative ghosts in which the poet explicitly places his lover from the beginning to the end of the lyrics, falls into this category. In these kinds of ghosts, a lover's response may not be given to the beloved, but these ghazals make the reader more audiences than other narrating ghosts. The lyrics 573 are an example of the lyrics Sa'di addresses at the beginning of the claim of love, and then he speaks with the beloved. Beloved at the end of the lyrics has a short answer for him.
This research, which was carried out with the aim of investigating the narrative structure of Sa’di’s lyrics, shows that the narrations are lacidly placed in Sa’di’s lyrics, and Sa'di's goal in the narrative ghazal has not been specifically understood, but because he is fully familiar with the narrative structure, Sometimes it also uses this ability in its lyrics.
As for the use of narrative elements in Sa’di’s narrating narratives, it can be said that the script is not impressive in Sa’di’s poetry, but the description of the time and place of the event is confined to a narrow and limited extent, for example by expressing words such as the shower, the Dawn, today and the morning to time, and with The use of words such as home, market, desert, meadow, and golzar refers to the place of events, which are often public places. The angle of sight in Sa'di's lyrics is more pronounced in the form of an externality, and sometimes also variable, and we encounter a rotational angle of view, for example, with a third person's narration and in the middle of the first person. Most importantly, there are a variety of personalities in the hands of Sa’di’s lyrics. The characters of Sa’di’s narratives are more loved and beloved, but sometimes there are characters like rival, enemy, jealous, and so on. Sa'di's narrative narrative, like his other lyrics, is more romantic, and the beloved - who is usually the complementary character of his lyrics - is the liveliest of the earth.
totally, it is possible to show three patterns among Sadi's narrators: addressing, narratives and descriptions. In many of his ghosts, he addresses his beloved or himself. The conversation in Sa’di’s lyrics is usually short and does not exceed a few bits. In some of Sa'di's narrative lyrics, there is an accident or story that is sometimes accompanied by Talmih. Describing a meeting with a beloved and describing his or her beauty, his own self, or beloved, and the description of the grief of seperation are among the other patterns that are evident among Sa'di's lyrics. Of course, it must be emphasized that Sa’di’s tendency toward romantic themes and the expression of feelings and emotions that he had overcome at the moment led him more towards expressing his own narrative, as well as the narrative of beloved qualities and circumstances.
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