عنوان مقاله [English]
Allusion is a rhetorical technique which has always been effective in strengthening the semantic and aesthetic aspects of literary works, especially poetry. Poets always pursue different purposes in using allusion, such as ellipsis, assimilation, solidity, visualization, exaggeration, influence on the audience, etc. (A’la, 2010:59). Some traditional scholars have investigated allusion solely within the sphere of modern science;but thinkers who have newer insights, have considered it as an element of imagery, as well. Accordingly, allusion is believed to have two or more layers; an imaginative relationship is created between deep structure and superstructure which leads to “a kind of pleasure of association and spiritual music” (Shafiee-Kadkani, 1994: 310). Allusion can also accommodate other rhetorical forms in itself or its adjacent structure so at to highlight inspirational and imaginative aspects of speech. This is always helpful in addressing the functions of allusion in literary texts.Accordingly, the purpose of this research is to analyze contextual and rhetorical aspects of allusion in Saadi’s sonnets; a poet whose other subtleties and semantic/form based potentials of his word can be learned through the findings of this research. Especially since he explains some of his most fundamental thoughts through allusion hints. The main research questions are: what are the most prominent types of allusion in Saadi's sonnets? What contextual functions and semantic details are manifested in different types of allusion? In using allusion, which rhetorical technique has been more prominent?In this paper, the researchers tried to answer these and more detailed questions using an analytical approach.
2- Research method
This research is conducted using descriptive-analytical method. For the purpose of this paper which is an outcome of a research on on content and literary style of Saadi’s sonnets, after extracting and classifying of all types of allusion in nearly all of the Saadi’s sonnets and reviewing its various semantic-thematic functions, manifested rhetorical methods are examined. The ultimate description and analysis is performed based on the most prominent types and functions and the selected evidence.
Saadi's dominance over Persian language and literature has created a clear harmony between form and content of his word; i.e. “it first interests the reader and then reveals its content. Those who read Saadi’s sonnet pay attention to both side of language, form and content …” (BarzegarKhaleqi and Aghdaei, 2007: Introduction). This feature also appears when it comes to effects of allusion. Understanding the subtleties of this feature requires independent analysis of semantic and formal representations.Types of semantic and thematic functions of allusion in Saadi’s sonnet are: romance, mystical, and moral-ethical. Function of romance: contextualbasis of most of the Saadi's sonnet is composed of lovebased semantic clusters.Saadi “clearly expresses romantic concepts ... usingpleasant literary arrays, and this is the secret of his success” (Zarrinkoub, 1991: 253). Accordingly, one of his tactics is allusion. In this regard, the most important types of allusion are: historical-storytelling allusions, Quranic-narrative stories of prophets, and folklore and mythological-epic adventures. In Saadi’s sonnet, romantic function of allusion commonly is to describe conditions of love, quality of love, andbeauty and merits of the beloved. Mystical function of allusion in Saadi’s sonnet is significant useof romantic themes along with benefiting from mystical reflections.In line with these interpretations, Saadi’s use of allusion is important. In such sphere, most of his allusions are Quranic references and adventures of the prophets.On the other hand, Saadi's art gives him the power to use romantic and mythological stories for expressing these intentions.The most important semantic manifestations of this sphere are:mystical practices, satisfaction and surrender, drunkenness and mortality, concomitance of the right men, and fighting the ego. Moral-ethical functions: Saadi, who "is both master of love, and teacher of piety and wisdom; things that you can hardly find together in one person…” (Anvari, 2003: 37) never ignore giving advice, even in his sonnets.In this sphere, Quranic-narrative allusions are most evident.The most important implications are: humility, self-esteem, generosity, criticism, and worldliness.Rhetorical function: rhetorical manifestations of Saadi’s sonnets have subtile and ongoing effect on its deep structure. In respective order, the most central aspects of his rhetorical forms linked to a type of allusion are: simile, symbol, and ambiguity. Simile function: the most prominent type of allusion in this sphere is references to Quranic stories, especially the story of prophets. Romantic inspirations are the most important semantic function of alluding simile. Symbolic function: alluding keywords are used as symbols to amplify the effect of word in Saadi's sonnets. In this sphere, Quranic allusions, especially the stories of prophets as well as mythological-epical references are most frequent. The most important concepts also have romantic themes. Allusion and spiritual music: “spiritual music ... is created from contradictions or contrasts and any kind of conceptual correspondence” (ShafiiKadkani, 1994: 307). In Saadi’s sonnets, allusions are mostly used along with spiritual arrays appeared in form of ambiguity that is often of symmetry type. The important point of this discussion is symmetrical nature of allusion. Alluding ambiguity often use romantic-storytelling references, Quranic allusions, and stories of prophets, and they usually have romantic function.
The most prominent types of allusion in Saadi's sonnets are Quranic-narrative references and stories, especially adventures of the prophets, historical-storytelling tales (romantic adventures whose narrative aspect is dominant) and mythological-epical references. Allusion referring to folkloric beliefs are also in the next level of significance. The most frequent semantic function of allusion in Saadi's sonnets appears in romantic poems. In this sphere, allusion is mostly used to describe the estate of lover, the quality of love, and the virtues of beloved. In romantic sphere, romance stories are most manifested. Allusions to adventures of the Prophets, Quranic verses, folkloric culture and beliefs,and mythical-epical adventures are the next. Saadi’s romantic poems have the most variety in using allusion. The next level is mystical function. In this sphere, allusion serves the purpose of communicatingconscious and romantic conduct, satisfaction and surrender, drunkenness and mortality, following the truth carriers, and fighting the ego. Allusion to Quranic verses and stories of the prophets is also most evident. Saadi uses allusions with love theme to explain his mystics.Moral-ethical function is in the third place.In this sphere, allusions are often used to convey concepts related to humility, generosity, self-esteem, and greediness and worldliness.Quranic-narrative stories are the most prominent types of allusion in this sphere where the slightest variation in the use of allusion is evident.In the rhetorical function, metaphorical images are the most frequent. It is worth mentioning the repetition of adding simile that attracts attention due to its compression. In this sphere, Quranic stories, especially story of the prophets, the story of Yusuf in particular, have a special place.The most important semantic function of these allusions belongs to romance. Symbol is the next. Within this sphere, inspirational potential of speech is increased by enhancing the semantic function of symbolic allusion. In this structure, the most important mission of which is conveying of romantic concepts, the frequency love stories and stories of the prophets is more pronounced. Musical – imagery style of ambiguity is another technique. Within this sphere, where we are dealing with symmetrical ambiguity and symmetrical ambiguity, adjacency of symmetries resulted from allusion and ambiguity creates a chain of semantic connections.The most commonly used allusions in this sphere, where romantic function is more prominent, are love stories, Quranic references, and stories of the prophets.
The Holy Qur'an, translated by Hossein Ansarian.
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