عنوان مقاله [English]
Narrative and storytelling among the various nations have always had a great place. The scholars are now trying to identify and classify their historical and social sources in literary studies. On the one hand, folk tales are popular among the people and, on the other hand, they describe the story and adventures of the kings, emirs, businessmen, Anonymous men and women who have been confronted with incredible and surprising events by chance. These stories are described in Simple and common language and are referred to as "folk tales" (Mir Sadeghi, 1987: 37). These works have historical and sometimes mythological sources, and maybe some of them come from the combination of different cultures of several lands. The correct name of Darab name according to the guesses of Safa, is “Firouz Shah name” because throughout the book is abundant of the performance, warfare and love of Firooz Shah. This story has been reported and spelled out for the scriber who has named “book reader” by “Beyghami”, the eighth and ninth century AH storytellers.
Undoubtedly, the analysis of different facial and content aspects of any folk tales can greatly increase the Amount of benefits of studying in this field. In this regard, one of the most important of these issues seems to be the adaptation of folk tales with of the carried out analyzes in the critique of the structure of stories. The most important questions in this regard are that is it possible to basically impose such ideas on Persian stories? And also the elements of Darab name can be seen with the complexity which exists in the present-day stories? Or is it a simple and straightforward story stream?
The matching of folk tales with principles and accepted theories in the field of critique as well as the analysis of the content of these works, on the one hand, can help to classify and arrange such research and on the other hand, it is effective in Explaining dominant principles on stories. Therefore, the main goal in this regard is to show the extent and the way to adapt the elements of the story with Beyghami’s Darab name and, consequently, other folk tales.
2- Research Methodology:
The methodology used in this research is analytical and based on written library resources. In the beginning, the story of the Darab name and then the elements of the story were studied based on new theories and then these elements and factors which involved in the critique of the story were matched to the above work in order to measure the degree of coordination of such elements with the story analysis topics.
The long story of Firooz Shah, despite its simplicity, has various incidents and a complex design. The mode of overturning or the transformation of positions in this work goes on with continuous nodes. At first, Firouz shah see the beloved in dream. But he does not know who she is and how can she be found? So the first node of the story, which leads to the start of the movement, is formed. This knot will become more complicated with the adventures and abundant events of the story. In this work abnormal events are divided into two parts: A) Stories that occur in spite of the reader's expectations or breaking the rationale of the story. Such as the involvement of Firouz shah and his companions on the way to Ayn al-Hayat with foreign forces such as the people of Jamileh castle, Shah Hurong, Shah Sarvar ,… . B) events that occur with the help of magic and since this is one of the frequent elements (Motif ) of folk tales, it is also appears in this story in format of magic yolk, magic drum, and so on. On the other hand, by analyzing the events of the story, it is determined that the plot (main theme) is closed, and sequential difficulties and troubleshooting have given an artificial order to the story. In the romances, since the scenes of the combat and the shindig are mixed, the story space is epic and sometimes emotional. Furthermore, it should be noted that in addition to the general tone of the story, there are two different tones in conversations and communications: The tune of the Iranians, which is solemn and good, and the tone of non-Iranians which is abusive and insulting.
According to the analysis of the structure of this story, it was concluded that the Darab name (Firouz shah story) contains all the elements of the story including the plot, the point of view, the character, and so on. Of course, these elements in this story can be seen in the simplest and the most elementary terms, not in today's complexity and in their many categorizations. The only element that is not fully compatible with the story is the element of truth like. The most important results are: the main theme in this story includes sequential difficulties and troubleshooting. Furthermore, Conflict, in spite of simplicity, is emotional. In general, this story plot is good and has all elements, including accidents, logical process, sequential and causal, regular difficulties and troubleshooting and attractive conflicts. The author introduces characters of the story explicitly and directly in the start scene of the story plot. This is due to the type of audience of such stories that are common people. The main characters of the Darab name are in the category of static characters. Furthermore, new characters entry in the story trend is accompanied by descriptions, and often these descriptions are a favorable background for the narrator's performance and enhance the richness of the work. The presence of Iranians as government slaves feels impalpable and indirectly in the story trend. But the people who are in the ship of khaje Elyas are Supernumerary character indirectly. Since Beyghami is one of the narrators of the Darab name story, not its author, and this story is quoted in the presence of people, it has an external or third person perspective. The Firouz shah story, like many folk tales, has no specified time and place. In general, in Darab name, the message is transmitted from person to person in an explicit and basic form and there is no particular complexity during the conversation. And although Beyghami has tried to use the standard words and vocabulary of the nineteenth century but the framework and the Superficial main theme of story require explicit conversations. The conversation of this work are divided into several categories: internal soliloquy, main heroes conversation, the dialogues of the walk-on characters, dialogues in the form of a bragger in battleground and written dialogues. The main theme of the Darab name is the love of Firouz shah to Ayn al-Hayat which makes the events of the story. . In the romances, since the scenes of the combat and the shindig are mixed, the story space is epic and sometimes emotional. In terms of style, the prose of the Darab name is ultimately simple and very close to the colloquial. The text of this work is full of pure Persian words and in comparison with other books like that, Arabic vocabulary is much less.
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