عنوان مقاله [English]
Narratology or narrative function is a relatively new science (Akhavat, 1992: 2). It is one of the successful fields of structuralism (Green and Lebihan, 2004: 110). The Russian formalists were the first group who conducted major studies on storytelling and narration. They began their research in the twentieth century, and their goal was to come up with a formulation, through which they can evaluate and analyze the form and structure of the stories. Greimas is a French linguist, semiotics and structuralist, and his views are the modified version of Prop’s.The narratological model of Greimas is a universal model, flexible and adaptable to (non) literary genres, through which the main structure of each narrative can be analyzed. One of these coherent narratives is the Iranian lyric and love narratives of the "(Mashhadi and Savab, 2014: 85); Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to study and compare the two verses of “Lilly and Majnon” and “Khosrow and Shirin” from the point of view of Greimas it attempts to analyze the behavioral pattern, narrative chains and semantic square in these two stories, to answer the following questions:
-What is the structural and semantic model of Greimas? And how it analyzes narratives? Is it possible to analyze the structure of “Lilly and Majnon”, and “Khosrow and Shirin” based on the Green's pattern? What are the similarities and differences between these two based on of the Greimas pattern?
2- Research Methodology
This article is done through content analysis method with a descriptive-analytical approach. The data of this research are two lyric verses of “Lily and Majnon” and “Khosro & Shirin” by Nizami Ganjavi. So, after theoretical explanation of the research on the narratology and the introduction of Greimas model, two verses were studied and summarized. Then two stories were examined based on the action model, narrative chains, and the semantics square of Greimas.
According to the actor's model, “the main character seeks to achieve a certain goal, he faces the opponent's resistance; a resolute power (sender) sends him to the mission. This routine also has a receiver (receiver) "(McCarrick, 2005: 152). The model of the actors in “Lilly and Majnon” and “Khosrow and Shirin” shows that the actor, sender, receiver, inhibitor and helper are influenced by the agent of the subject and therefore are influenced by the valuable object, which indicates the importance of agent actor and valuable object. In the “Lilly and Majnon”, we face two narrative systems that in both of them all actors are present, and the difference between the two systems is only in the actor of the agent and the actor of receiver, and in other cases they are the same. But in the “Khosrow and Shirin”, three systems of narrative were found that are present in all three actors, and the difference between the two systems is only the actor of the agent and the actor of receiver, and in other cases they are the same.
Greimas considers the entire structure of stories as the result of the sequence of three chains i.e. contractual, performative and disjunctive.
In both verses, there is a covenant and a contract that the agent actor in an attempt to act or violate it. There are also contractual and disjunctive chains. In both verses, by looking at the sequences in the performative chains, one can get the main plot of the story, and the number of sequences of this chain is less in the story of “Lilly and Majnon”. In both verses, there are numerous journeys, departures and returns that are numerous and varied in the “Khosrow and Shirin which indicate disjunctive chain and a change in the status of the hero of the story against the act or violation of its treaties or contracts along these two narratives.
By studying two narratives, in each of the verses two semantic squares were found. It is true that the semantic square resulting from the two opposing words of life and death is available in these two verses, but some differences are also available. Love in “Khosrow and Shirin” is different than the love in “Lilly and Majnon”. In “Khosrow and Shirin”, in addition to the love story of “Farhad and Shirin” -love in marital life, the virtual love of man to woman and woman to man is evident; but in “Lilly and Majnon”, though seemingly there is love and lover, but these are tools to express mystical love. In other words, love in “Khosrow and Shirin” is the same as Vis and Rāmin and they live in the earth, but love in “Lilly and Majnoon” is beyond the tangible world (Gholam Razaei, 1991: 235). Also, in “Khosrow and Shirin”, the lover finds his beloved after a long time and the occurrence of different events. This love, along with the bitterness and expectation, has sweet moments, but in “Lilly and Majnon” we find a tragic love in which union does not happen.
In this research, the actional pattern, semantic square and semantic chains of two lyrical verses of “Lily and Majnoon” and “Khosrow and Shirin” were studied according to the Greimas pattern and the following results were obtained:
-In the case of plot, these two verses contain all the elements of the plot, the elementary, middle and final parts, and the organizing and destructive force. In both stories, the destructive power comes to the story in almost the elementary part of the poem. The events of story are complicated and there are many incidents that make it possible to take different perceptions.
-From the structuralist narrative of Greimas, in both verses we face a number of narrative systems (two narrative systems in Lilly and Majnon, and three narrative systems in Khosrow and Shirin), each of which has six actors such as agent, sender, receiver, helper, opponent and valuable object, and the value object. In this narrative, some actors have multiple roles. Majnon and Lily, as well as Khosrow and Shirin are both agent and receiver
-Reviewing the narrative chains in “Lilly and Majnon”, and “Khosrow and Shirin”, indicated that all three chains of contractual, performative, and disjunctive are available. The disjunctive chain in this narrative reflects the course of the story moving from an unstable state to a moderate and calm state; therefore, in both narratives, the initial balanced state with the opposing and deterrent forces turns into an unbalanced situation, until this situation, with the influence of the contributing forces, moves toward balanced situation.
-With semantic square analysis, in each of the two verses, two semantic squares were obtained. The square is obtained from the two terms “parting and joining” in both verses. In the semantic square of both verses, actors move towards achieving a valuable object. This move is done from words to their contradictions and ultimately reaches the final meaning. With regard to what has been said so far, it can be said that the two lyrical verses, “Lilly and Majnoun”, and “Khosrow and Shirin”, have a structural and full validity model and can be analyzed and analyzed in the framework of the structuralism and semantic theory of Greimas. The two narratives in the field of structuralism narrative and in Greimas pattern are very similar. Of course, there are some differences.
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