بررسی تعهد ادبی در شعر هاشم الرفاعی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات عربی دانشگاه خلیج فارس بوشهر

چکیده

احساس مسئولیت ادیب در برابر مسائل مربوط به جامعه را تعهد ادبی می­گویند که یکی از مهم‌ترین موضوعات ادبی در چند دهۀ اخیر به‌شمار می­رود. شاعر یا نویسنده­ای که به ارزش­های انسانی پایبند است و احساس می­کند که آن‌ها در حال سست شدن و تباهی هستند و خود را ملزم به انعکاس چنین مسائلی در شعر و نثر خود می­داند، در حقیقت در راه تعهد ادبی گام برداشته است. هاشم الرفاعی شاعر معاصر مصری نیز از جمله کسانی است که با تأثیرپذیری از اوضاع سیاسی و اجتماعی حاکم بر جامعه، شعرش را وقف رسالت خویش و بیان رنج‌ها و آرزوهای مردم سرزمین مصر نموده است. در این پژوهش با روشی توصیفی- تحلیلی به این سوال اصلی پاسخ داده شده است که عوامل پیدایش و مهم‌ترین جلوه‌های تعهد ادبی در شعر هاشم الرفاعی چیست؟ یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهد که اوضاع نابسامان جامعۀ مصر به‌خاطر حاکمیت استبداد و نفوذ استعمارگران از عوامل اصلی گرایش شاعر به انجام تعهد ادبی وی است. او مدافع سرسخت ظلم­ستیزی و دعوت به اتحاد بوده و بدین طریق هنر خویش را در خدمت هدفی والا و رسالتی انسانی قرار داده­ است. ستایش آزادی‌خواهان و مقابله با حاکمان فاسد از درون‌مایه‌های پربسامد در شعر شاعر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying literary commitment in the poems of Hashim Al-Rifai

نویسنده [English]

  • Ali khezri
Assistant Professor of Arabic Language and Literature at the University of the Persian Gulf, Bushehr
چکیده [English]

 
1. Introduction
 
       Literary commitment is one of the most important literary issues in recent decades. A poet or writer who adheres to human values and feels that they are losing ground and who are required to reflect the problems of society in their poetry and prose, in fact,have embarked on a literary commitment. Hashem al-Rahai, the Egyptian contemporary poet, is one of the poets who influenced by the political and social conditions prevailing in his community  devoted his poetry to politics and to expressing  the suffering and aspirations of the people of his homeland. In this study, we are going to study the most important effects of literary commitment in Hashem al-Rafa'i's poetry, and in fact we seek to find out that the literary commitment in his poetry has been demostrated in stating what issues.
 2 .Detailed Method
     In this research, considering the purpose and the questions, we examine the most important effects of literary commitment in Hashem al-Rahai's poem by descriptive-analytical method. In the first instance, the issues related to the problems of the poet's community are extracted and then analyzed from the perspective of the literary commitment.
3. Discussion
The period of colonial rule over the Middle East and the Middle East, often threatened and humiliated  nations, made those who felt the pain of the community to be self-proclaimed and ignore the pain of society. Hashem al-Rafa'i is also one of the poets who put his poetry at the service of upbringing his homeland. He always gives hope to his allies that the victory is very close, and that the Egyptians will have the fruit of jihad and effort soon. He promises that the morning beam will itself blow away the dark curtains. He even swore  in the name of martyrs in the bloody scene that the fury of anger would eventually come to fruition, and the warriors would bring joy to the people by overwhelming the enemies.
       The expression of the suffering and tragedy of the people that is the result of the colonial domination is also very high in Hashem al-Rahai's poetry. He is very uncomfortable with the disasters that his co-workers have suffered. The events that colonialism and the rulers of their puppet in the hearts of the people are so large that they snatched the sleep from the eyes of the people and filled their hearts with sorrow and discomfort, so that the poet could not be calm and arranged. The poet finds the disasters that the colonialists and tyrannical rulers bring to the people so large that they are likened to large masses of the cloud, and the wounds created in the hearts of the people are so great that they can never be healed. But the poet is not just about the sadness of the people of his homeland, but also the events of many Islamic countries such as Tunisia, Libya, Algeria and Sudan. Therefore, the poet has not enclosed himself in the geographical area of his homeland, but also the language of other Muslims, which, of course, is one of the characteristics of the prominent Muslim poets that do not overlook the pain of other Muslims.
      The intellectual class of society, including the poets, had the duty to inform the people with their poems and to make them aware of the cruelty of the ruthless rulers. Society's thinkers, when they know their true self and become conscious of their existential capabilities, always invite the audience to gain knowledge and cognition in their statements and works of art. Hashim al-Rahai is no exception.
      He considers the call for integrity to be important, and it is an important issue for victory. That is why he invites his compatriots to unity and asks them to eliminate divisions, for it is the basis of every failure. Therefore, one of the main concerns of the poet is the lack of unity among the people, and most of his poetry revolves around this theme. He not only invites his homeland to unite against enemies,  but is also unhappy with the lack of unity among Muslims, and speaks in a complaining language.
     From among Arab countries, Egypt has always been invaded by the British colonialist country, hence Hashem al-Rafa'i, is always addressing the old colonizer the Great Britain. The poet calls on his people not to neglect the wolf-like English characters. He sometimes likens them to the wolf, which is a hideous temperament, and sometimes they are likened to the fox, who are thinking of deceiving other countries. Sometimes the poet portrays the image of the men at war with the colonialists of the time to strengthen the enmity for colonizers in his comrades. In one of his odes, he refers to Dr. Mossadeq and how he stood up against the colonialism and nationalized the oil.
                                                                                             4. Conclusion
     The analysis of Hashem al-Rahai's poems shows that he is one of the influential poets of his community, whose most important feature is his attention to "mission and commitment" in his poetry. He supports the efforts of his country's children to freedom of worship and expresses the pain and suffering that all the oppressed people in the world suffer from. He has always played a significant part in waking up the people and instilling the spirit of hope in provoking the Egyptian people against their colonial rulers and their puppet rulers. In fact, with his enlightening poems, he has made clear the face of colonialism, especially British colonialism, for his compatriots. One of the most prominent features of the poet's style is his explicit language, to the extent that his poem is written without conservatism as much as possible.
Key words: contemporary Arabic poetry, literary commitment, Egypt, Hashim Al-Rifiai.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Contemporary Arabic Poetry
  • literary commitment
  • Egypt
  • Hashim Al-Rifiai