بررسی ساختار و محتوای آستانه‌سرایی در منظومه‌های فارسی تا قرن ششم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه جیرفت

چکیده

مرسوم است شاعر قبل از شروع متن اصلی منظومه‌، بخش‌هایی را به عنوان آستانه منظومه می‌آورد که حکم دروازه ورود به متن اصلی دارد. این سنت قدمتی دیرین دارد و در کهن‌ترین آثار ایرانی همچون اوستا و کتیبه‌های هخامنشی و منظومه‌های پهلوی دیده می‌شود و در منظومه‌های دری نیز استمرار یافته است. این تحقیق با روش توصیفی تحلیلی و با بررسی 19 منظومه فارسی تا قرن ششم، در پی آن است که نشان دهد مقدمه‌ها از نظر محتوا و ساختار شامل چه مواردی است؟ آیا می‌توان سیر و تطوری برای آن در نظر گرفت؟ مقدمه‌های منظومه‌های مورد بررسی در سه دستة دارای مقدمه‌های عمومی(یازده مورد)، تخصصی(پنج مورد) و بدون مقدمه(سه مورد) جای می‌گیرد. در مقدمه‌هایی اختصاصی، شاعر به اقتضای موضوع اثر، آستانه‌ای متناسب با آن برای ورود به متن اصلی سامان می‌دهد. مقدمه‌های عمومی که از رایج‌ترین مقدمه‌هاست، شامل مباحثی چون تحمیدیه، نعت رسول(ص) و صحابه، معراج‌نامه، آفرینش، بخش آزاد وصفی، مدح ممدوح، سبب تالیف کتاب(اشاره به پیشینه و نقد آنها، دشواری کار، دلیل سرایش) و بستر نهایی است. فردوسی را می‌توان پیشرو مقدمه‌سرایی عمومی دانست و بعد از وی مقدمه به مرور تحولاتی همچون بسط اجزای مقدمه، افزودن مقدمه منثور یا بخش‌های دیگری همچون معراج‌نامه را داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of structure and content of introduction in Persian poetry collections till sixth century

نویسنده [English]

  • mehdi dehrami
Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature, University of Jiroft
چکیده [English]

1-      Introduction
"In the term, the poetry collection is a narrative or non-narrative poem that has a thematic unity and has a previous design and is more often written in the form of couplet" (Dehrami, 2015: 2). There is less poetry, and even a literary work, that the author begins after the title immediately. One of the important features of the poetry collection is to have an introduction to entry to the subject matter. The purpose of this article is to examine the Introduction of the poetry collection. The questions of this research are: Who introduced the first introduction to the poem? What are the contents of the content and structure? Is it possible to consider it?
2-      Research methodology
This paper has been done through a descriptive-analytical method based on library studies. Initially, 19 Persian poetry collection were collected till sixth century, and their introduction was categorized and reviewed.
3- Discussion
One of the important parts of each poetry collection is its beginning. That is the gateway to entry the original text. The introduction section is independent of the original text but provides important information that helps for understanding and interpreting the text. The author of Haft Aseman has considered the introduction necessary for any poetry collection:"The introduction is essential for any poem, whether short or long.  A few things are essential for introduction of couplet: Oneness, prayers, praise the Prophet, praise the king, definition of speeches and speakers, the reason for writing a book "(Agha Ahmad Ali, 1983: 42) The tradition of preface and introduction in Iranian texts has a long history. In some Achaemenid inscriptions, the text has been started with the description of Ahura Mazda and his creations, then it has been linked to the owner of the inscription creatively and coherently: "The great god, Ahura Mazda, who created the earth, created the heavens, created people, created happiness, made Darius the king..." (Narman Sharp, 2009: 85) In introduction of Pahlavi works is also at works such as Yadgar Zariran (Re: Jamasb J Asana, 1992: 49). Introduction, in the post-Islamic literature, has become widespread because of the religious advices on starting things in the name of God.
Introduction of persian poems are divided into three categories: general introduction, special introductions and no introduction. Some poems have no introduction and the poet enters the main part in this poem suddenly. This has many reasons. the introduction is usually set after the completion of the poetry collection. If the poet does not end the poetry collection, his poem will be without introduction.The shortness of the poetry collection and the educational aspect also play a role in the absence of an introduction. Sa'adatname of Naser Khosrow and poetry collection of Rashid Vatvat is without introduction(Vatvat, 1945: 68). In the special introductions, the poet starts his work based on the subject and content of the book with a background, so that he can enter the subject matter. Karname Balkh of Sanaee which has started with description of the wind, is the important poems written in this way.The wind is a messenger in the literary tradition and the poet has paid attention to it:
ویحک ای نقشبند بی‌خامه         قاصــد رایگــــان بی‌نامه
(Sanaei, 1954: 299-300)
Another poetry collection is Sier al-Ebad of Sanaee with this kind of introduction, which has been also started with description of the wind.
 
General introduction is the most common type of introduction and it is seen with a little displacement of components and deletions and additions in most of the poems. The public introduction includes the followings: praising the Lord, praising the Prophet and his companions, creation, description, reverence of the king, the history of the work and its critique, the difficulty of the work, and the final substrate. Ferdowsi is the founder of introduction and the first poet to provide a complete and comprehensive introduction at his work. His introduction has almost all the components of the general introduction. After Ferdowsi, there were changes in the introduction, one of which was the extension of the introduction. Another change was the addition of prose introductions to poetry. The first poetry collection with this feature is the Rahat al-Ensan of Badaee Balkhi. One of the most important sections of the general introduction is saying the reason why the book was written, which is valuable and important information about the poet, his purpose and work. This section includes smaller sections such as: the purpose of the poet, the name of the work, the source and history of the work and their critique, the difficulty of the work and the book list and content.
 
3-      Conclusion
Introduction is the gateway to entry to the original text and it has an important place in providing information, comprehension and harmony. Introduction of poetry collection are divided into three categories: no introduction, general introduction, with special introductions. Some poetry collection has not have an introduction because the poet has not ended it or they have an educational approach. Special introductions are diverse and have been written in line of the main theme of the poetry collection and the creation of a suitable ground for entry into the original text. The most important poet is Sanaee in this way for example Karname Balkh and Seir Al-Abad. The public introductions include the followings: praising the Lord, praising the Prophet and his companions, creation, description, reverence of the king, the history of the work and its critique, the difficulty of the work, and the final substrate. The initiator of this kind of introduction is Ferdowsi. One of the sections of the general introductions is the reason for writing the book. This section includes smaller sections such as: the purpose of the poet, the name of the work, the source of the work and their critique, the difficulty of the work and the book list and content.
 
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