عنوان مقاله [English]
Exile is one of the social phenomena that is occurred by the disruption of social and political conditions in human societies. Throughout the history of this phenomenon, many people have been struggling to rise and revolt against tyranny and colonialism. Since the poets hold their selves the responsibility of clarifying and expressing the unpopularities and somehow their works reflect the events of their homeland, they have faced this ominous phenomenon. In the contemporary Arab world, Iraq is one of the countries that, due to its unfavorable political and social conditions, has more poets and writers in immigration or exile compared to other Arab countries. One can point out to great poets such as Abdul Wahhab Bayati, Sa'di Yusuf, Yahya Al-Samawi and Adnan Al-Sayegh, who each Resurrected against oppression at different times but with a common goal, which led to their exile from homeland; therefore, they had to express their ideas to improve the deteriorating situation in Iraq. Yahya Al-Samawi and Adnan Al-Sayegh are both well-known Iraqi poets who were forced to leave Iraq in response to the repression and tyranny of the ruling community during the of dictatorship ruling of Saddam Hussein, have played a significant role in waking their compatriots to liberate Iraq. In this research, it is tried to investigate the common concepts including clarity, recollection of the past memories, exploitation of nature and love of the homeland in the poems of Yahya A-Samawi and Adnan Al-Sayegh through analytical-descriptive method. At the end, the following two basic questions will be answered: 1. How did the Iraqi political situation in the twentieth century affect the views of these two poets? 2. What are the most important common concepts in the lyrics of these two poets? The present study aimed at achieving Yahya Al-Samawi's and Adnan Al-Sajag's thoughts and feelings and expressing the effect of exile on their poems.
2- Research methodology
In the present research, it is tried to investigate the common concepts including clarity, recollection of the past memories, enjoying nature and love of the homeland in the poems of Yahya Al-Samawi and Adnan Al-Sayegh through analytical-descriptive method.
Yahya Al-Samawi and Adnan Al-Sayegh were Iraqi contemporary Iraqi poets who were in exile because of the dictatorial government of Saddam Hussein. Exile and the resulting effects have changed the thoughts of these two poets towards their surroundings and appeared in their poems. Among the main issues of exile that were found in Yahya Al-Samawi and Adnan Al-Sayegh's Divans are: 1. Clarity and explicitness, 2. Reminding of past memories, 3. The use of nature, 4. Love of the homeland. One of the most prominent features of the contemporary poets of Resistance Period is their explicit language which is tangible in their poems. The two poets, without any horror, have politically and explicitly revealed the ruling regime and the crimes of the colonial countries as fully as possible. Nostalgia in psychology is referred to a method of writing based on which the poet or writer draws up a past time or a land in his/her thoughts humbly and painfully in his/her poem or writings (Anousheh, 1997: 2/2006). To reduce their sadness and due to being away from home, poets tend to remember the sweet or bitter memories to achieve relative quietness. Al-Samawi and Al-Sayegh are the contemporary poets that nostalgia is visible in their poems. One of the main issues in Al-Samawi and Al-Sayegh's Divans is the tendency toward nature. These two poets mostly take their topics from the realm of nature, because the poets in exile are inspired by elements of nature to narrate their plagues and sufferings and use these elements in the direction of their purposes, and express their thoughts using similarities and themes. In Al-Samawi and Al-Sayegh's poems, inspiration comes from animate and inanimate nature. For many years, human being has a special interest to the homeland and his/her heart goes for the homeland everywhere in this planet. This is especially true in the poetry of poets whose territories were burned out in the war and colonialism. This issue has forced many poets to defend their country in order to excite the passion and saga in their nation (Masbough et al, 2011: 132). The both exiled poets pursue the problems of the homeland, as if not only the memories of homeland has not decreased their pains and sufferings but also brutalize the poets’ soul more than before; therefore, they can’t be indifferent to the affairs of their country such as displacement, war, bloodshed, etc. For this reason, patriotic is observable in the Divans of the two poets.
The issue of exile exists from a very long time ago and it is not a new issue in the world. This phenomenon occurs by some factors such as confrontation against tyranny and colonization in a society. In today's world, the impact of exile is obvious in the contemporary poets' Divans, including the Iraqi poets. Yahya Al-Samawi and Adnan Al-Sayegh are two of the exiled poets being far from homeland is apparent in their poems and any reader feel it from their poems. Both poets have used various forms of language such as clarity and explicitness to express their intentions to escape their societies from tyranny and colonialism, and to alert their countrymen. It seems that both poets point out the crimes of foreigners in the simple words and call people to unite to take steps to improve the situation. Remembrance of the past memories is the common concept in the poems of these two poets, by which they review bitter and sweet memories, thus calming their soul and soul. The symbolic inspiration of nature in the poems of both poets has caused the ambiguity in the expressions of their views. Love of the homeland is the most important subject of the poetry in exile, which is clearly seen in all the works of exiled poets, especially in Al-Samawi and Al-Sayegh poetry. Both poets have been able to express their goals and intentions with their artistic talents and language of poetry.
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