عنوان مقاله [English]
Semiotics is knowledge of understanding and analysis of linguistic and non-linguistic signs and semiotic criticism is the study of structure and signs of a text in two vertical and horizontal axes. Poetry is an open discourse with proper setting for interplay of signs; “signs that as a text are related with multilateral interaction” (Sojoodi and Kake Khani; 2008, 294). In a poem, signs find meaning in relation with each other and the context in which they are put. The interplay of signs leads to movement of poetry and extension of meaning which provides the ground for a new reading.
One of the human emotions, that has been central to the literature of nations since the old times, is love. Using special tools and signs, this emotion creates noteworthy and decisive manifestations in literary works. Rhetorical symbols are among important tools used to express poets’ thoughts and feelings. Shams Langroudi is a prominent contemporary poet who uses rhetorical signs to give artistic form to his poetry and reflects life in his through language, image, and imagination. Romances of Shams have simple and folksy language tailored to the taste and interests of man of his day. Given what was said above, in order to achieve the role and function of rhetorical symbols as well as rhetorical codes in Shams' romance, this research addresses his romantic poetry and answers the following questions:
1- Do rhetorical signs contribute to the formation of Shams Langroodi's romantic poetry?
2- What are different types of rhetorical signs in prominent spheres of romance and what are their functions?
3- Given the prominent aspects of romantic discourse of Shams, what are the most frequent rhetorical signs and stylistic rhetorical signs?
2- Reserch Methodology
The research method is descriptive-analytical and analyses are based on content and statistics derived from rhetorical signs. In this research, theoretical basics are explained first. Then, types of romantic signs grounded on three aspects of beloved, love, and poetry are studied, some examples that are identified with figurative clusters are analyzed, and the function of signs is explained by evidence.
Romantic poetry is product of romantic discourse and its dominant system, i.e. emotional system. Shams Langroodi's romantic poems are artistic romance in which love is highlighted with his special codes, by relying on signifiers and signifieds and the relationship between them, so as to influence the readers and arouse their feelings. In these romances, the poet gives a warm look to the world to link his experiences together. He bridges the lover, love and beloved, and creates an unbreakable bond among them.
Total number of romantic poems of Shams Langroudi is 262 composed based on three aspects of love, beloved, and lover and born from love and beloved. Considering the three aspects and their rhetorical signs, discussion is processed as follows: because of the vast scope of the subject, evidence and avoidance of iteration, charts are set in each section which indicates the prevalence of rhetorical signs in the process of romance formation. Also, given the frequency, content diversity, and possibility of classifying beloved-based poetry, compared to the other two aspects, as well as better connection of readers with romantic poems of Sham, sub-sections are considered for this aspect of romance. So, tables are arranged in two high and low frequency modes. The criteria for this process is to compare frequency rate of rhetorical signs with each other. Since figurative clusters have played a significant role in the formation of romance, they are studied in a separate section and their chart is drawn according to the frequency of clusters.
Rhetorical signs are key determinants of discourses of Shams Langroudi. Through hidden power of these signs, Shams presents the formation process of his romantic poetry. Shams' romantic poetry is formed within the three areas of beloved, love and poem, for processing of which Shams uses rhetorical signs in two ways. He uses these signs in some of his romances, but in most poems, he composed his romances using rhetorical signs. In these poems, density and intensity of signs in figurative clusters create romantic discourse where differentiation of signs breaks up the text and leaves its meaning unfinished. Beloved is the most prominent aspect of Shams' romantic poetry. In these poems, he describes the organs and their existential dependents, distance and homesickness, desires and wishes, addresses and conversations, expression of love, and comparison of lover and beloved. In each of these subsets, rhetorical signs have a definite role. In all subsets of beloved, signs of appropriateness, alliteration, and simile are at the top. But in the subset of desires and wishes, metaphorical signs are used more than simile since they are relevant to the subject. The use of iconic sign in metaphor to describe the beloved, desires and wishes, and addresses and conversations indicates the connection between Shams and tangible and inhuman phenomena in replacement tailored to the issue. Contradiction used in the subsets of describing the beloved, desires and wishes, and addresses and conversations are most common in comparison of lover and beloved and expresses mutual mentality of the poet's descriptions of lover and beloved, that are manifested in poems by this sign. Also, repetition of signifier letters (Sh, S, B, D, T, and G) in each subsection represents the dominant content. The other aspect of Shams’ romantic poetry is love. Langroudi look at love with simple, objective, live, and rational eyes full of affection which link individual and society and the poet uses rhetorical signs in defining and mentioning the characteristics of love. For vivid and tangible representation of love, Shams uses iconic sign in metaphor. Where logic is set a basis of definition, he puts indexical signs of appropriateness and contradiction beside iconic signs and when he wants to link love to community, he uses a multi-layer figurative symbols. Here, Repetition of signifiers letter (SH, S, R) reveals Shams's mental codes in his definition of love. In these romances, Shams believes poetry gives birth to love and beloved so he wants his poems understand the language of love. In description of poem and love, Langroudi uses the rhetorical signs of appropriateness, simile, alliteration, and metaphor. To describe the aspects of poem and beloved, added to above symbols, he also uses two other rhetorical signs of chiasmus and allusion. Repetition of signifiers letter (SH, S, T) reveals poems link with these two aspects. In general, according to the frequency of rhetorical signs in Shams' romantic poetry, the most frequent iconic and indexical signs in these poems appropriateness, alliteration (colliteration of T, S, D, R, and SH shows strength, softness and flow), simile, explicit metaphor, implicit metaphors (Mosarahe), and iteration – at sentence level. Also, in these romantic poems, indexical signs of appropriateness and alliteration as well as iconic signs of simile, whose second signifier is explanatory, are stylistic and arousing signs that that engage the reader's mind and make him a productive reader. Based on evidences of the three aspects, the functions of rhetorical signs in romances of Shams - tied to different signs of nature, phenomena, object, time and place – are: A) involving the reader by influencing him/her but not making the reader bored; B) shifting and arousing emotions; C) creating relationship between the poet and the reader; D) associating; E) explaining the meanings intended by the poet and helping to understand the meaning and fix it in the reader's mind; F) objectifying; G) creating dynamics, cohesion and highlighting themes; H) expressing experiences of life (public and personal); I) locality; and J) coherence, beauty and musicality of poem.
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