عنوان مقاله [English]
Saghinameh is one of the various types of Persian literature and "a kind of Mathnawi in which the poet addresses Saghi and brings up subjects such as death, the instability of worldly life, admonition, wisdom, etc." (Dehkhoda, 1998:9/13324). All the definitions of Saghinameh have considered Saghi as the addressee and wine and music are known as the only demands of the poets, however, other characters were addressed and other elements expect wine and music were desirably demanded by the poets in Saghinamehs. Therefore, it would be advisable to add a brief revision to the definition of Saghinameh and define Saghinameh as a type of Persian literature in which the poet often addresses the Saghi and ask him for wine.Most of the Saghinamehs have been written in poetic form of Mathnawi; while, other types of poetic forms such as combination of clause, refrain, and Ruba’i and other prosodies were also employed. This kind of poem usually starts with imperative form of two verbs “give” and “come” but using imperative form of the verbs is not to order. Some scholars argue that this is a matter of the persuasiveness of the word (Rezaei, 1393: 139) And some others consider it as a kind of optative order (Haddadi Taqanaki and Safari, 2002: 30).
Lyrical literature includes a large part of Persian literature and Saghinameh is an effective type of Persian lyrical literature; thus, researchers of the paper aimed to study and analyze addressing and demanding elements as a key characteristics of Saghinameh. The paper aimed to review the form of addressing in Saghinameh. It also aimed to desirably demonstrate and analyze poets’ adressing in Saghinameh.
2. Research Method
It is a library research which has applied analytical- descriptive method. Various forms and types of addressing, the quality of start of different Saghinamehs, addressing in multipart Saghinameh, order of the addressing, frequency and theme of addressing and demands of poet were fully discussed and analyzed.
Addressing is usually expressed with“Come, Saghi” and “Give, Saghi”. Poets of Saghinameh had various demands according to which there have been different types of mystical,lyrical, personal, national, and political Saghinameh. This resulted in differences in addressing.Some Saghinameh has just started addressing the Saghi (FayyazLahiji,1993:192); however,some other Saghinameh have addressed hypothetical audience (Khajoo-e- Kermani,1969:15) or poet’s own conscience.As there is a large amount of addressing in Saghinameh, it has been considered as addressing poem (Mahjub, , 1960: 69). The order of addressing in various Saghinameh is different and some addressing is direct while others are descriptive. A look at the various periodicals shows that from the late nineteenth century onwards, these descriptions are beginning to increase and reach the peak in Indian style (Rezaei, 2009: 94). The number of addressing verses is also different in different Saghinameh. A part of Saghi, hymn, and the musician are considered as main elements in Saghinameh; however, other characters such as God, an anchorite, an advisor, a preacher, a king, a Mohtassib, a wiseman, a gardener,an elderly, a cebu, crispy, and a cup were sometimes addressed and the poets have sometimes demanded other things rather than wine, such as Saghi himself, forgotten people, good deeds,direction to pothouse, disregarding the world, etc.. Saghinameh also includes numerous metaphors which are considered as the wine that makes the poet reach the true desire.A cup of thought and knowledge,a cup of truism and justice, a cup of gratefulness are some of different types of wine. The poet knew wine as the only way to reach his true desire that can be knowledge, awareness, truism, justice, and gratefulness. The sympathy of love for wine is the first stage in the formation of the mystical meaning of wine (Poorjavadi, 1979: 119).Unity and mortality are examples of spiritual demands of poets which are present in mystical Saghinameh.Despite of spiritual demands of the poets in mystical Saghinameh, poets have sometimes demanded for material things such as kebab (Golchinmaani,1980:285).
Addressing in Saghinameh is usually in form of “Give, Saghi” and “Come, Saghi”.Similarly, the hymn and musician are also addressed in different ways. The quality of addressing is different in different Saghinameh.Addressing in multipart saghinameh is different and the poet has not addressed only Saghi all through the poem and has addressed the Saghi with various adjectives and names suitable to the theme of the speech.In different Saghinameh, other addressees such as God,an anchorite,an advisor,a preacher,a king,a Mohtassib,a wiseman, a gardener, a cebu, crispy, and a cup were also addressed by the poet.Most of the addressing and orders are positive imperative, i.e. to do something; however, there can be seen negative imperative to beware the Saghi. Before the contemporary period, all the addressing has had the form of “Come, Saghi”.Poets of different Saghinameh demanded other things rather than wine. Some of these demands are Saghi himself, forgotten people, Kosar Saghi, grace of Prophit Mohammad, a confidant partner,disregarding the world, direction to pothouse, good deeds, kebab, and a cup of knowledge, thought, love, unity, mortality, gratefulness, truism, justice, etc.
Keywords: Literacy genres, Lyric literature, Saghinameh, Moghanninameh. Khataab, Talab
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