آیا واقعاً یک عمر می‌‌‌‌توان سخن از زلف یار گفت؟ (بررسی کارکردهای واژگانی، تشبیهی و تصویری زلف در غزلیات صائب تبریزی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌‌آموختۀ دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه شیراز

2 استاد زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

با توجه به مصرعِ «یک عمر می‌‌‌‌توان سخن از زلف یار گفت»، صائب واژۀ «زلف» را به‌‌عنوان نمونه‌‌‌‌ای برای مضمون‌‌‌‌سازی انتخاب کرده‌‌است؛ اما آیا این واژه در سخن او، اهمیت و جایگاه والایی داشته‌‌است؟ این مقاله بر آن است تا کارکردهای واژۀ زلف را در غزلیات صائب تبریزی با روش تحقیق کیفی، از نوع تحلیلی- توصیفی و شیوۀ متن‌‌‌‌پژوهی بررسی کند. صائب حدوداً در دو هزار بیت از زلف سخن گفته‌‌است. در بیشتر موارد واژه‌‌‌‌های سازندۀ بیت، با وابسته‌‌‌‌ها و مانندگی‌‌‌‌های زلف در همان بیت، مرتبط و در هم تنیده‌‌است و صائب در ضمن استفاده از مشبهٌ‌‌‌‌به‌‌‌‌های ابداعی همچون «ره خوابیده»، «رشتۀ گلدسته»، «کوچه‌‌‌‌باغ» و «مصرع برای زلف»، شبکه‌‌‌‌هایِ تصویریِ زوجیِ متنوعی از آن در کنار «شانه»، «خط»، «حُسن» و «چانه» آفریده‌‌است؛ از‌‌‌‌جمله صفات زلف از نگاه صائب می‌‌‌‌توان به «افتادگی»، «سرگرانی»، «دستگیری»، «دل‌‌‌‌شکنی» و «طراری» آن اشاره‌‌کرد. علاوه‌‌بر سلیقۀ شخصی صائب، ذائقۀ معمول عصر و ضوابط مسلط‌‌بر طریقۀ رایج هندی، در برجستگیِ کارکردهای واژۀ زلف در غزلیات شاعر نقش داشته‌‌است. نتایج نشان می‌‌‌‌دهد صائب این مصراع را با اندیشه و آگاهی سروده و این واژه، از واژه‌‌‌‌های مهم و کلیدی غزلیات اوست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Is this really possible to speak about Zulf – Yar for a life-time? The study of Vocabulary, simile and pictorial functions of Zulf in Saeb Tabrizis Sonnets

نویسندگان [English]

  • leila amiri 1
  • mohammadhosein karami 2
1 Graduate PhD in Persian language and literature at Shiraz University
2 Professor of Language and Literature in Shiraz University
چکیده [English]

 
Extensive Article Abstract:
1. Perface
Undoubtedly, Saeb Tabrizi is one of the greatest Theme-maker and Punctilious poets in Persian poetry and his detailed and diverse themes of his poetry show that he has been poetic in all the phenomena and affairs of existence, The reason for the various, narrow, and fresh themes of his poetry is waved. This has led Saeb to play the most important role in Indian style and even some say that Indian style is Saeb style. Some sources have described him as the hero of Indian style (Ensani, quoted from Saeb, 2000: 34) and (Ehteshami Honegani, 1989: 14).
Mirza Mohammad Ali Saeb Tabrizi is the greatest sonnets poet composing of Gazal of the eleventh century. By creating his own style of poetry, he created impeccable imagery in the style of Indian style, found neat themes, introduced allegory and Hosne- talil into a new way, and linked poetry with morality and mysticism and life (Anwari; quoted from Saeb, 2005: 23).
The following verse was written by Saeb in response to those who claimed to have said all the words, and there was no longer any word left to say, and it was similar to the other.
One life can be said about Zolf Yar/ Do not leave the subject intact (Saeb Tabrizi 1988: 2/974) 
 
2.Research Methodology
In this Article, we have tried to investigate the functions of “Zulf's” words in Saeb Tabrizi's sonnets in terms of lexical, inventive Moshabbehon- be, and various images. Qualitative research method is of analytical-descriptive type and method of text-research. Saeb has spoken in nearly two thousand verses of Zulf.
 
3. Discusse
 Zulf means the front of the hair and sometimes it is considered as the Giso “long hair”. Iranian pronounce “Zulf” with “U” which means the few hair around and if especially belongs to beloved and its because of its black hair.  (quoted from Dehkhoda; with tablature). From Zulf and its descriptions, such as twist, restlessness, distress, black and trap, are used to describe the beauty of the beloved. Saeb has selected some features for “Zulf” that have made it a pleasant and attractive one. It is worth noting that Saeb has chosen new attributes for his newly-minded minds and tales of Indian style and delicacies in relation to the poets before Zulf. If  Zulf had already been black before, it become black hair now .If he had been disturbed before Zulf, it had become irritable now. Of course, it should not be overlooked that. Sa'eb, along with the attributes of perfection, sedition, seduction and infidelity, has included completely new features such as life-giving water, pride, robber, and enhantment for Zulf. The word Zulf as an element that has been irrefutable in the beloved beauty of Persian literature, has been repeatedly revealed by Saeb's poetry with its lexical power and extensive semantic load. Saeb was aware of the abilities of the Persian language and the lexical capacities of this language, and "with his special art in a verse, he has put all the words in a special order "(Hasanli, 2004: 117). The active and searcher mind of Saeb, by invoking any term or phrase, have pursued a series of other words and phrases that have had lexical proportions and links in different directions. The relations that have come about in terms of art, the combination of meaning and the resurrection of the word. In his alternative word-of-mouth method, he has used the capacity of word placement in the chain of words, and the components of his biases have obvious and secret connections. Sa'eb has been used to create a foreign meaning from new, primitive, and distant moshabbehon-bes for Zulf, and has broken the limits of traditional traditions. He has advanced beyond the boundaries of the moshabbehon-bes, and has distinguished other distinct, non-existent elements of vulgarity as a moshabbehon-be one. In the poetry of Sa'eb, the words with their complex and repeated relationships have created a variety of visual clusters. The word "Zulf" was added along with the words ‘”Dell” (Heart), "Shane" (Comb), "Khat" (tails) and "Hosn" (Beauty) as pairs of images in poetry poems. Zulf in his poetry is also in line with the tradition of Persian poetry, home and it is the of heart, but the poet has brought this theme with innovative innovations in Indian style and his infinite creativity. As an example, in a pure image, the homeland drove the heart into a zoological, resembling a Muslim in the veil. These pairs of images are not exclusive to the Zulf with Dell (Heart), Shane (Comb), Khal (Mole), Khat (Tail), and Chaneh (chin); but Saeb has created numerous images along with other elements such as Roy (face), Mozhgan (Eyelash), Mouth, Kamar (Waist), Hosn (beauty), Nasim (spring wind), “Goshvareh” (Earring) and “Negah”  (Look). The images, created by the indistinctness and intricacies, uncompromisingness and elegance of the poet, have been created in search of a foreign meaning and in accordance with Indian style indices.
                                                                               
4 . Conclusion
The results indicate that the word "Zulf" such as "Sarv" (Cedar) and “Hobab” (Bubble) are key word and determinant in Sa'eb Tabrizi's Sonnets. In most cases, the word “Zulf” has a literal and semantic relation in one verse with other words in the same verse. For example, Saeb likened Zulf to something, and, with the his perfect ability in art, mentioned the lexicon that was appropriate to that one in verse, and was able to form a lexical equation by linking the artifacts of the verse components.This fact expresses the deep awareness of the poet about the capacities of the Persian language and the rich treasure of his mind. Saeb, in strange likenesses associated with his innovation, puts Zulf alongside some innovative and unfamiliarMoshabbahon-bes such as "Changale Shahbaz", "Toughe Qomri” , “Mesra", "Kochehbaghe", "Farrash", “Parrikhaneye Chini", and "Reshteye Goldaste”, which do not have a color of repetition and banality. In addition, Saeb created paired images in unique imagery by putting "Zulf" alongside "Chane" (Chin), "Kamar" (Waist), "Shane" (Comb) and "Khat" (Tail). In particularly, these images have come up with unprecedented and ingenious elements in the structure of oppositional elements. For example, he has seen in a picture (Zulf and Kamar) (prominence and Sonnet). The findings indicate that in addition to the personal taste of Saeb, the usual taste of the time, the dominant rules on the common Indian style, the format of the Sonnet, and the theme of love and mysticism, also played a role in the prominence of the functions of the phrasal word in Sonnet's poems. In the end, it should be said that while Sa'ib may have just posited a poetic claim when it comes to this verse, he has finally proved that with a vast array of themes, Only one life can be said about Zulf Yar.
 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Vocabulary Links
  • Creating of Image
  • Saeb Tabrizi
  • Innovative Moshabbehon-be
  • Zulf's Themes
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