عنوان مقاله [English]
Adaptive literature is the study of literary phenomena among two or more different literatures. Also, comparative literature is the relation between a literary phenomenon and various sciences. Religion and sacred beliefs, is considered as one of the dominant phenomena that has shaped the literature and the arts of nations. This research has examined the extent of the presence of this variable in the poems of Gibran and Sepehri and also tried to study and compare the similarities and thematic differences between the poets of these two poets. Sepehri is a contemporary poet, sometimes included in his poetic illumination, in his poetry contains elements of religious culture and spiritual symbols. The view of this poet is based on Islamic teachings and his mental connection, with Eastern Orientalism. The most significant religious symbols in Sohrab poetry have been revealed in the poems of "Mosafer", "Ma high ma negah" and "Sedaye paye ab". Also, the ideological ideas of Gibran Khalil Gibran are a homogeneous set of Christian beliefs, contemporary Western philosophical trends, and Islamic teachings. He is known as an eastern version of Western look and feel. He confessed: "I am as much as an Arab, as English as I am" (Shakib Ansari, 1375: 226). He knew and was influenced by the thoughts of many western thinkers like Shakespeare, Hugo, Lamartin and Blake. The poetry of this poet painter is a perfect example of the accompaniment of the style of romance and symbolism. Throughout the writings of Gibran, like Sohrab Sepehri, grief, wonder, symbolism and holy elements full of images and colors. are mentioned together.
2- Research methodology
This research has been done to study the sacred symbols in Gibran Khalil Gibran's and Sohrab Sepehri's poems based on the American method of comparative literature. Some scholars of this method have argued that the mission of comparative literature is to study the relation of literature to other domains, arts, philosophy, religion, etc. (RK: al-Khatib, 1999: 50). The main sources used in this research are library resources, academic journals and scientific websites. This research responds to the question of how Gibran Khalil Gibran and Sohrab Sepehri used sacred symbols to enrich meaning in their poems? To answer this question, it has been analyzed and compared with the religious symbols as well as the main goals of mentioning them in the themes of the poems of Sohrab and Gibran.
The belief in God and his sense of being in the whole world is one of the main features of the poems of Sohrab Sepehri and Gibran Khalil Gibran. Sacred beliefs in the perspective of Sohrab poetry are the single truths that have been taken with a simple human perception of different colors. His poetry is the position of the beliefs of thousands of species that appear to be heterogeneous and contradictory in the religious field. Also, his poetry is the intersection of concepts that are in the world of others' eyes. Gibran Khalil Gibran, like Sohrab Sepehri, believes in unity in beliefs. In his emotional isolation, he has guest and guest reader in a pleasant way, God and a holy space in a conscientious partnership. That is why in his poems, like Sepehri, poetry themes are chosen from religious elements. The poems of Sohrab and Gibran are full of symbols drawn from distant and near-believing beliefs of human thought. Many symbols in Sepehri's poetry refer to Hinduism's beliefs. Among these symbols, we can express the mysticism, Varanasi, Veda and Sernat Road. Also, some symbols like Rose, Sajada, Goldset and Takbirat al-Ahram are also from the beliefs of the heavenly religions. Many of these symbols have been used in poetry for compensation. Among the symbols of the poem of Gibran Khalil, one can mention the Yahve, Ain dour, Lil'at al-Qadar, Kowsar, Sajdah, temple and synagogue. The poetry of these two poets is the holy place of symbols, in a way that can be said that this is one of the special features of their poetry.
From the sum of what is mentioned in this research, it can be concluded that the following results, in a glimpse:
This research studies the comparative study of the presence of sacred symbols and universal religious beliefs as a variable to be studied in Sepehri and Gibran's poems based on the American method of comparative studies. In this view, the comparison and the content of the content was the main topic of the research, and the subject has not been impressive. Therefore, many of the poetry of these two poets has been examined and the differences and differences between the presence of these symbols and elements have been discussed. Sohrab Sepehri and Gibran Khalil Jabran are two modern contemporary poets in Persian and Arabic literature. They succeeded in combining the two literary methods of romanticism and symbolism, and using emblems of human beings and beliefs, to make these sacred social symbols in order to construct their poetry and cultivate its themes. In the poetry of these two poets, they have played a romantic and symbolic symbol in creating an artistic atmosphere. The existence of sacred symbols in Sohrab and Gibran's poetry is in a way that has given guests a global perspective of religious truths and human beliefs, regardless of geography or time. In the shadow of this ideological coexistence, the mystic illumination of Sohrab and contemporary Gibran thought, it is well-documented in their poems. The poetry of both poets is based on the use of the sacred symbol of the East, from thoughts of Hinduism and Buddhism, Confucian teachings, ancient Egyptian beliefs, Babylon, and also influenced by Western ideas and thoughts from Greece. Both poets have used many of the symbols of the heavenly religions of Islam and Christianity. Islamic symbols are abundant in Sohrab poetry, while used in Gibran's poetry, both groups of symbols are abundant. Both poets have tried to present a fluid, calm, entertaining and poetic space by combining religious beliefs and romantic imagination to the audience and maybe this is one of the reasons for the readers' attention to the poetry of these two poets.
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