تطبیق عاشقانۀ حماسی «سیاوش و سودابه» با همتای اروپایی آن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیارگروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، واحد اسلامشهر،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،اسلامشهر، ایران

چکیده

در ادبیات ملل آثار فراوانی را می‌‌توان یافت که در آن‌ها عشق، آن هم از نوع ناپاک و ممنوعش، موضوع و محور اصلی داستان‌‌ها باشد. داستان «سودابه و سیاوش» از حکیم توس و رمانس «تریستان و ایزوت»، نوشتۀ ژوزف بدیه فرانسوی، از‌جملۀ آن آثار است. این دو اثر دارای همسانی‌‌ها و ناهمسانی‌‌های بسیاری با یکدیگرند که هر دو اثر منظوم و منثور را با یکدیگر قابل‌قیاس و انطباق می‌‌سازند. این مقاله به‌منظور بررسی و شناخت وجوه اشتراک و افتراق دو اثر، انجام شده‌است. نوع پژوهش، تحلیلی- توصیفی و براساس کتب و اسناد معتبر کتابخانه‌‌ای بوده‌است. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده نشان می‌‌دهد که شباهت اساسی هر دو روایت در آن است که دختری جوان با پادشاهی پیر ازدواج می‌‌کند و پس از مدتی میان شه‌‌بانو و یکی از خویشاوندان شوهر که در داستان سودابه و سیاوش، «پسر شوهر» و در تریستان و ایزوت، «خواهرزادۀ شوهر» مطرح است، عشقی ممنوع آغاز می‌‌شود و در پایان هر دو روایت مرگ قهرمانان را به‌‌ همراه دارد؛ تفاوت اصلی نیز در آن است که در روایت فردوسی عشق شه‌‌بانو به سیاوش یک طرفه، اما در داستان تریستان و ایزوت این عشق دو سویه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A comparative study of Epic amorous Siyâvoš and Sudabeh whit that European analog

نویسنده [English]

  • Nahid jafari
Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extensive Abstract :
 
1-      Introduction
If ferdowsiy’s Shahname and other similar works written in this area are just considered from epic perspective, other aesthetic aspects of them will be ignored since these works consist of a great number of romantic, Gnostic , and educational stories besides being epic. Although these two stories “Siavash and Sudabe” of Abolghasm ferdowsiy  and “Tristan and Izout” written by Joseph Bédier ,French writer, were created in two different lands; they were structurally and conceptually similar, and the magnificent effect of the mixture of inner feelings and external behaviors of their heroes were shown. Therefore, since these stories are both epic and romantic and Both poetry and prose to identify with each other and adapt to them. the researchers aimed to do the current research.                     .                                                                             
    But the main questions raised in this study are as follows:  
        
       -    What is the position and type of Love in these two narratives?
-          What are the similarities and differences between two romantic stories of “Siavash and Sudabe”  and “Tristan and Izout” ?
Besides answering the above mentioned questions, this study aims at comparing two main epic romantic stories of the world and finding their similarities and differences which opens a new window of understanding to the literature lovers of the world.                        
 
2-      Research methodology
 The research method in this paper is comparative and based on French School. In this study, in particular, the comparative method has been used, and for this purpose, different documents and references were studied and divided into the first hand and secondary sources, and by considering the comparative method in analyzing the concept of the components in the research objectives, the study was discussed and finally the inferences and results were extracted. The method of data analysis is based on the library study method and comparing and analyzing of research data. By referring to various sources, while extracting the related subjects, the researcher collected and analyzed the theoretical foundations such as comparative literature, epic and romantic stories, etc. and at last, compared and analyzed the data obtained from library study documentarily.                                                                        
 
3-      Discussion
Discourse Comparative literature analyzes the intersection of literature in different languages and its complex relations in the past, present, and their historical relations in terms of their influence in the fields of art, literary schools, intellectual currents, and the impact of people on each other, etc. In comparative literature, the unity of human thoughts can be seen above all, and it is found that how human thought is posed by a scientist, scholar, and/ or poet somewhere in the world and the same thought is presented somewhere else in another way (kafafi, 2004: 15). Anyway, throughout the history, the life and story of lovers has always been the subject of attention by many narrators and critics, so romantic stories occupied a wide area in the literature of nations, and in comparing literary works, many works can be found in which the forbidden love is the main subject, including, the story of “Sudabe and Siavash” and the romance of “Tristan and Izout”.                                                                                                                              
The romance “Tristan and Izout” is an independent novel written by Joseph Bedieh, a French writer who used to be an expert in the medieval literature; he rewrote several texts of this era including Tristan and Izout  story into contemporary French; this story is divided into separate chapters and in contrast, the story of Siavash and Sudabe is a unique masterpiece of a great book called Shahname which is known as its main name of “Siavash”. There are many similarities and differences between these two stories of “Tristan and Izout” of Joseph Bédier and “Siavash and Sudabe” of Abolghasm ferdowsiy, which are discussed in this article.                                                                                        
 
                                            
 
4-      Conclusion
 What inspires the reader’s passion for reading two epic romances“Sudabe and Siavash” and “Tristan and Izout” is to be love-oriented; but in contrast, what is undesirable from the beginning of these two stories is the forbidden love of their heroes. Of course, this forbidden love is the spirit of both stories, and results in events and conflicts and attracts the readers to read them. It seems that the authors of both stories have been able to keep their readers satisfied and inform them of the forbidden love; as Sudabe’s impure love of her husband’s son caused the innocent death of Siavash, and in the romance of Tristan and Izout, the same immodest and of course unwittingly love happened between them led to their sacrifice, and at the end of both stories the tragic death of their heroes is seen; but the tangible thing that is impressive in both stories and adds to their beauty and longevity is the growing of some plants on heroes’ graves who were unwillingly pushed to the world of love, and the growth of plants indicates their innocence, and their greenery is the symbol of their survival, immortality, liberation and revival.                                                                                             
 
 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • :love
  • Epic amorous
  • Siyâvoš and Sudabeh
  • Tristan and Iseultstory

‌ منابع

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