عنوان مقاله [English]
Eulogium is one of the most common topics in Persian literature. This concept in the term is "the compliment given by the poet on eulogized ones counting whose ethical issues and praises his actions and achievements, and the language applying in honour of that one" (Razmjoo, 1385: 89). The eulogium range in Persian literature suggests that most of the male administrators, such as the kings, ministers, and their people, have repeatedly attracted attention of eulogist poets and have been praised for various features and even beyond imagination (Vazinpour, 1374 : 29-71). In other words, in the Persian literature, male (man) as a sultan, minister, generalissimo, judge, Imam, rich and etc. has been praised for having such features as statecraft, devisal, combativeness, enemy overcoming, justice, religiosity, people caressing, and benefaction. For clarifying this, we can say that the patriarchal nature of the society in the earlier ages has caused dominating the male element for accessing the officials and social positions. This leads destitute ones as panegyrists seeking the attraction of their attention from various ways. But along with this conventional reality, sometimes during the eulogium literature, women are also considered to be praised. Although such events comparing with those of men's have rarely taken place, but it's worth mentioning the fact that women, in spite of their limitations, what characteristics and reasons are considered to be important. Addressing these two issues, is necessary since women's social authorities in the past patriarchal system can be traced through literary texts. On the other hand, feminine mentalities and the traits describing women in the past customary system as desirable and allowable ones are detectable.
2- Research Method
This research makes use of descriptive-analytic method. The information and data are collected by the library method, and the main sources are the poem set of the eulogium Poets. In other words, firstly, among the greatest poets of Iran, the twenty-one of the late ones are selected from the fifth and sixth centuries for extracting eulogies they have created for women. Then, the extracted odes are categorized according to the attributes given to women and based on the reasons of their eulogies. Finally, responding the research questions arisen, the collected information is described and explained in a descriptive-analytical way.
In eulogium tradition, considering the good traits of the eulogized individuals is prevalent. In this regard, although the admirations regarding women, expressed by highlighting some of their traits, but occasionally the poet has lost the control and without mentioning her traits, has magnified eulogized one's magnificence and esteem. The Anvary's speech in line of a verse states "You are so great as same as God's so that there is no one to access to you in the world" (Anvari, 1364: 53). Therefore, through this way, eulogized one has been just described as a great woman without mentioning her special ability. Although, the most important eulogies regarding women fulfil through highlighting some their traits since the most important of which are: "awe-inspiring," "statecraft and politics," "generosity," purdah "," Chastity and Infallibility " and "religiosity". But despite this attribution related to the "character" of women, in reference to their "face", a significance silence has been expressed by panegyrists. This silence of the exaggerating congregation describing the pampered women interested in being admired, who, of course, could not refrain themselves from showing off their beauty, in spite of having many various gadgets of luxury, is of very remarkable interesting. The reason for such event is that on the one hand, the description of "face and hair" in Persian literature is a description regarding ideal lovers, bondwomen, and slaves since women who are as religious spouses and conventional mothers are not subject to such descriptions (NK Roozbeh, Mohammad Reza and zaruni, Ghodratallah, 1393, 166-168). On the other hand, probably not addressing eulogized women as lovers by panegyrists is due to belonging such women into kings' seraglio and their severe protection.
However, mentioning the reason for encouraging women described in panegyrist odes, the fact as a primary and essential role is the same known factor, that is, demanding and making request for commissioner women. This fact, regarding the eulogium tradition, represents a prominent position of some women in the preceding era. This means that, destitute people, including panegyrists, have presented their requests for the owners of the state and governors or governesses. Therefore, naturally, eulogized women having positions have been praised. However, at a first glance, the descriptions given to eulogized women, who have been appointed, appear to be a subject exaggerated, but the study of historical and social texts implies the prominence of their significant political and social works talking about their politics, civilization and etc. In addition to the above mentioned factor, that is, presenting request, the description of the eulogized women such as "purdah or inhibiting manner", "chastity" and "infallibility", and the absence of "descriptions of their faces", may indicate other desires that should be originated in the cultural and inner tendencies of the panegyrists. Evidently, personalities such as inhibiting manner (purdah) and chastity, which are repeatedly attributed to eulogized females, cannot be directly related to presenting the request and need arisen by panegyrists. A reason for such descriptions is, sometimes eulogized women in eulogium time are described in an ideal form not in the real world. Thus, in fact, highlighting the inhibiting manner and chastity of women, they are embodied in the mind and language of their male devotees with a desirable and ideal identity.
In Persian literature, women have been considered with various methods including detailed, short-term, intermittent, which are essential and inevitable for understanding each of them and conception of a woman and his qualities. In line with such a purpose and necessity, in this article, the woman from view of panegyrists odes are described for attribution of descriptions given to them and the reasons for their eulogium. According to a survey conducted in a small sample of odes composed for eulogizing women, inner and appreciated traits such as compassion, asceticism, chastity and infallibility have been repeatedly attributed to them. In addition to this, civilization, political affiliation and politics are also the outstanding traits describing women in these odes. We can say that these attributes, unlike the preceding features observing the intrinsic nature of the eulogized women, indicate their social and political status. In addition to the mentioned reasons and according to the traditions of their panegyrists, they are often praised for the request and necessary needs since it is not only their reasons, but indicating tendency for making an ideal and grand woman in panegyrists' mind.
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