مقایسة منظومه‌های عاشقانۀ «رابعه و بکتاش» عطار و «سلامان و ابسال» جامی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای ادبیات غنایی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مشهد

2 دانشیار زیان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

منظومة تمثیلی «رابعه و بکتاش» از الهی‌نامة عطار نیشابوری، با درون‌مایة عرفانی در 421 بیت با مضامین عشق عذری سروده شده‌است. رابعه با اینکه شاهزاده است، عاشق بکتاش (غلام برادرش حارث) می‌‌شود. منظومة‌ «سلامان و ابسال» نیز در 10860 بیت از هفت‌اورنگ جامی، داستان تمثیلی شرح دلدادگی ابسال (دایه) به سلامان است. در هر دو داستان، دختران شروع‌کنندة عشق‌اند. «رابعه» عاشق «بکتاش» و «ابسال» عاشق «سلامان» و عشقشان نسبت‌به معشوق پایدار و پاک است. هر دو شخصیت از خاندان سلطنتی هستند؛ پدر رابعه، شاه بلخ و پدر سلامان، شاه یونان است و هر دو از درون خانواده به زندگی خود پایان می‌‌دهند. «رابعه» توسط برادرش از بین می‌رود و «ابسال» خود را در آتش می‌سوزاند. این پژوهش که به روش توصیفی و تحلیل‌‌ محتوا انجام شد، نشان می‌‌دهد که مهارت سرایندگان این دو منظومه در توصیف دقیق عشق و همچنین منش شخصیت‌‌ها، مخاطب را تا پایان داستان تحت‌تأثیر قرار می‌‌دهد و با وجود رمزآلود‌بودن هر دو حکایت، عشقی جذاب و پایدار در سیر داستان روایت می‌‌شود. مسألۀ اصلی این پژوهش مقایسة منظومه‌های عاشقانۀ «رابعه و بکتاش» عطار و «سلامان و ابسال» جامی و بیان تفاوت‌ها و همانندی‌های دو منظومه، تبیین و توصیف دقیق عشق و همچنین منش شخصیت‌ها و تأثیر آن بر مخاطب است و اینکه فضای عاشقانۀ داستان چگونه در پیشبُرد روند داستان مؤثر بوده‌است؟

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of romantic poems Rabe'e and Baktash of Attar and Salaman and Absal of Jami

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sosan beglari 1
  • Hassan bassak 2
1 Ph.D. Student of Lyric literature, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad branch
2 Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Payame Noor University
چکیده [English]

The allegorical verses of Rabe'e and Baktash from the ElahiNameh of Attar Neyshaburi, have been written with a mystical source in 421 bits of love with the theme of love, and Raba'a, though a prince, loves Becketash, his brother Al-Harith. The Salaam and Salam are 10860 Verses of the HaftOrang of Jami, an allegorical story of Absal -Dāyā- With Salaman. In both stories, Women are the beginnings of love. Rabe'e likes Baktash and Absal likes Salaman and their love for the beloved are stable and clean. Both characters are from the royal family; Rabe'e's Father is the king of Balkh and Absal's Father is the king of Greece, and they both end their lives from within the family. Rabe'e is destroyed by his brother, and Absal burns himself in fire. This research, which has been done through descriptive and content analysis, shows that the creativity of the two poets in affecting the exact description of love as well as the character of personality influences the audience until the end of the story, and despite the mysterious nature of both narrations, An attractive and lasting story is told in the story. The main issue of this research is the comparison of the romantic verses of Rabe'e and Baktash of Attar, Salaman and Absal of Jami, and the expression of the differences and similarities of the two poems, the explanation and precise description of love as well as the character of the characters and its impact on the audience, and how the lyrical atmosphere of the story is in Has the story progressed effectively?
Keywords: Rabe'e and Baktash, Attar Neyshaburi, Salaman and Abasal, Abdolrahman Jami, Comparative.
 
 
1. Introduction
Since love is the basis of rich literature and the skill of the poets in expressing artistic expression and presenting pure love images is one of the issues of interest in the field of literature; a comparison of the romantic poems of 'Rabe'e and Baktash' of Attar and 'Salaman and Absal' of Jami, the explanation and exact description of love, as well as the character of the characters and its effect on the notes in these two poems as the main issue of this research, were considered by the authors. Also, comparing and adapting the characteristics of the same story and analyzing their content and expressing the way of describing love in the love poems of Jami and Attar and comparing their literary functions were also considered and that: 1. The way of describing love in the joy of the romantic poems What did Attar have in the progress of the story? 2. Differences and verses of the poetry of 'Rabe'e and Baktash' and 'Salaman and Absal' of Jami are the main characters in the description of the characters as well as the lyrical atmosphere of the story. The famous poetry of Rabe'e and Baktash is from Mantegh Al- Teyr of Attar, a well-known poet who has no knowledge of his life other than what Attar has revealed in his book. In the earliest remark of Persian poetry, Lobab al-albab, it reads: "Rabe'e Bent Ka'b al-Qozdari, daughter of Ka'b, although she was a woman, but laugh at the grace of the men of the world. Horseman both the square and the governor of both expressions, were able to grasp the ghastly order, and in the Persian poetry, highly skilled, with a high degree of intelligence, a sense of coherence, and continuous love, you lost control and witnessed. It has been quoted that, as Sheikh Abu Saeed heard his story, he said: "I reached out to me and asked daughter of Ka'b whether he was a mystic or a lover." They said that the poetry that flowed on his tongue was that it was not possible to create such a burning sensation in virtual love. (Aowfi, 1930, p. 2:16)
Jami - the poet and mystic of the ninth century poets - in the book of HaftOrang, he has regulated the story of Salaman and Absal. In fact, this story is a codenamed story written in the third century AH by Honayn Ibn Ishaq from Greek to Arabic. (Rozatian, 2009: 98) He lives in Greece, who does not have a spouse and child, but has a wise and wise man. After having the wise guidance of a boy and giving young and beautiful Daya for his education, until Salaman (the son of the King) and Absal (Daya) are very Age difference, and with enduring difficulties, the father of the two he does. Absal will burn in the fire and the wise will solve the problem and make an example of Absal to relieve the pain of salvation and then destroy that face and slowly speak of Venus until he salutes his love to Venus and ultimately With consent of the king's father to Salaman (Ashrafzadeh, 1382: 22). These two stories have many mystical aspects that are controversial in their place, although in the first story of Rabe'e and Baktash, they love excuses and do not get together, and the king's daughter, She loves the servant, but Absal, the dare loves the king's son and hugs him hard.
 
2. Research method
This research studies the richness of the two great poets, Attar Neyshaburi and Abdul Rahman Jami in his two novels, Rabe'e and Baktash, and Salaam and Absal, with a descriptive and content analysis approach, and also explains the delicacies of two stories and methods of analysis. The storytelling in the verses of Rabe'e and Baktash, and Salaam and Absal is based on a comparative approach. In this study, the authors first examined the rich manifestations of two stories from different angles, and then pointed out the differences and similarities of the tow Story.
 
3. Discussion
In the literary works of narrative structures, various meanings are brought into the mind. The narrator, in turn, employs structures in his work that are diverse and able to affect the audience. In the middle of the story, the letter begins with the father of Rabe'e: One King was a great supporter ... this is a steady at the start The story has a twofold impact on the reader. The King was the epicenter of the city of Balkh and its name Ka'b. Very adorable, just and awesome, so that at the time of his rule, not only did people have no problems at all, and they were peaceful alongside. Jami also begins the story with Salaman's father, a powerful King. This power and enthusiasm in the story tells the reader hard to curious who this Alexander is, who is the crown? Then he gained this greatness: the father of Salaman is a King who lives in Greece and, like Alexander, has a throne with fairness and dowry.
In each story of space and color, the relation is closely related to the element, since the description in the story focuses on the creation of a particular mood, and the element "is the emotional state that shadows a part of a literary work or all over it" (Abrams, 2005: 19). This emotional atmosphere is strongly reflected in Rabe'e and Baktash's stories. Because when Ka'b's death comes, his daughter will give Rabe'e to Hares, his son, who cares for him very well and says that many kings chose him from me, but I was not satisfied. In the story of Salaman and Absal, He was deprived of him to Daya; he is very beautiful and his name is Absal, and it is about twenty years old. Daisy kindly absorbed and saluted Salaman, and that Salaman reached the age of puberty, was a very beautiful and enchanting boy who fell in love with her heart, but she kept hiding this love forever and tried to use her every means. He fell in love with him so that he became very enthralled and enthusiastic.
In the poems of Rabe'e and Baktash, both lover and lover die both of them, as Hares, brother of Rabe'e, imprisoned him in the bathroom and handed over to Minister, slamming his arm and then murdering Rabe'e. Baktash, who was imprisoned in the well, was rescued after a few days. He first went to Hares, the brother and murderer of Rabe'e, and cut off his head. Then he went to the tomb of Rabe'e and swallowed the stick in his liver and gave life to the soul and joined the beloved. But in the reign of Salaman and Absal, Salaman was saved by Wise, with Magic, and surrendered to his father, but Absal gave up on fire and life to the soul. Therefore, contrary to the story of Rabe'e and Baktash, Absal burns in fire, but Salaman will be freed from the death of the wise father and wise.
 
4. Result
Salaman and Absal is a rational and allegorical story that has been introduced in the mystical literature of Iran. The king's purpose in this story is the first reason that he is responsible for the management of all things. The unassembled word of the body and the outside of the womb, without any combination, makes the foot in this world, and the wise, which is the grace of grace, creates him. Absal is also meant to be a lustful person. They belong to each other and they are often caught in the strap. The sea cup is a symbol of animal lust, Venus is also a symbol of excellence and perfection. The story of Rabe'e and Baktash Attar is also a fairy tale of love and mystery. Rabe'e grows with his brother (Hares) after his father's death. The same fraternity that brings him to perfection and places so much in his education that he is even a partner with his brother in the affairs of the kingdom. But this Hares, is so angry with the smallest news, and when he comes from the love of Rabe'e and Baktash He gets acquainted with the commandment of his sister Rabe'e's murder, and although he sacrifices his action to Baktash, Hares, the brother and murderer of Rabe'e. Attar describes the scenes very beautifully. In this story, the main hero, a girl who falls in love, is a symbol of her soul and beloved, Baktash, a cipher of the human soul that begins with the end of this story, describes the stages of the soul-Rabe'e salvation-and the evolution of the soul-Baktash-.
From the comparison of the description of the states of love in the romantic verses of Rabe'e and Baktash of Attar, Salaman and Absal' of Jami, and given the mysterious nature of both stories, one can conclude that it is possible to achieve spiritual perfections and to ignore erotic desires, despite the many difficulties. In the process of the story, we find that the testimonies begin with earthly love, and with its problems, such a Stay away and sacrifice, it continues, but in both stories the way of describing love is entirely with its codified and allegorical aspects as a pure and heavenly love and signs It ends like divorce, separation, restraint, avoidance of pollution, and finally the death of a lover and beloved or one of the lovers. There are many similarities in these two stories: the father was both prince's character, one king of Balkh and the other king of Greece. Rabe'e and Absal are both loyal to love. Rabe'e is destroyed by his brother, and Absal burns himself in the fire. There are also differences: Rabe'e and Baktash do not go together. There is no marginal love in Rabe'e's story, but there is such love in the story of Salaman. Also, improper judgments, spying and informing Baktash friends make their letters fall into the hands of the brother, and anger takes the place of love for the brotherhood.
 
 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rabe'e and Baktash
  • Attar Neyshaburi
  • Salaman and Abasal
  • Abdolrahman Jami
  • Comparative

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