شگردهای هنری کتاب «نیستان» ادیب قاسمی‌‌کرمانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

2 استاد گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

3 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

چکیده

یکی از مهم‌‌ترین شگردهای هنری در کتاب «نیستان» ادیب قاسمی‌‌کرمانی که نقش بارزی در شهرت این اثر داشته، بهره‌‌گیری از صورخیال و عناصر علم بیان بوده که تشبیه، استعاره، کنایه و مجاز، متناقض‌‌نما و حس‌‌آمیزی را دربر‌‌می‌‌گیرد. علوم بلاغی از آغاز طلوع شعر فارسی تا به امروز، همواره مورد توجّه شاعران بوده و حتّی در نخستین اشعار عروضی فارسی نیز می‌‌توان جلوه‌‌هایی ازآن را جستجو کرد. کتاب «نیستان» که در قالب مثنوی سروده شده‌‌است، به‌‌لحاظ کاربرد صورخیال در ساختار زبان عامیانه، اثری ارزشمند محسوب می‌‌شود. در این پژوهش شگردهای هنری این اثر در سطح روساختی، به روش تحلیل محتوا مورد توصیف قرار می‌‌گیرد. ادیب کرمانی (1308-1238ﻫ.ش) از شاعران حوزۀ ادبیات انتقادی و فولکوریک است و کتاب «نیستان» وی به پیروی از سبک بوستان سعدی سروده شده و او درمقابل جلوه‌‌های بلاغی و به‌‌ویژه صورخیال مطرح در بوستان، با بهره‌‌گیری از کلمات و تعبیرات خاص مردم کوچه‌‌و‌‌بازار و صنف شالبافان، اثر نقیضی در تقابل با بوستان سروده‌‌است. پاسخ به سؤال اصلی تحقیق که دریافت مهم‌‌ترین شگردهای هنری و جلوه‌‌های بلاغی «نیستان» و میزان موفقیت شاعر در این زمینه است، هدف موردنظر نویسندگان را دربرمی‌‌گیرد. نتیجۀ پژوهش نشان می‌‌دهد که شاعر از واژگان محلی و عامیانه، تعبیرات و اصطلاحات صنف شالبافان و کنایات خاص مردم کوچه‌‌و‌‌بازار، به‌‌عنوان شگردهای هنری سبک خاص خود استفاده کرده و در این زمینه به توفیق نسبی دست‌‌یافته‌‌است

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Artistic Techniques in "Neyestan" book Adib Ghasemi Kermani

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammadreza Heydari 1
  • Maryam Khalili jahantigh 2
  • Mohammad Barani 3
1 Phd student in Persian literature and language Department , university of sistan and baluchestan.
2 Professor of Persian literature and language Department university of sistan and baluchestan.
3 Associate Professor of Persian literature and language Department university of sistan and baluchestan.
چکیده [English]

One of the most important artistic techniques in "Neyestan" Adib Ghasemi Kermani's book that has played a significant role in the reputation of this work is utilizing fantasy imagery, that means elements of the science of expression that includes simile, metaphor, metonymy and irony. From the begining of oersian poetry to today, rhetoric science has always been a matter for the poets and even can be found it in the first persian poems.
The "Neyestan" book that written in the Masnavi form is one of the most important Adib Ghasemi Kermani's compilations that is considered to be a valuable work in term of the use of fantasy imagery in folk structure. In this research the artistic techniques of "Neyesan" are reviewed and analyzed, that its most important function can be searched in the expression elements used in this work.
Adib Kermani (1859-1929) is one of the poets in the field of critical and folklore literature and his book "Neyestan" follows the Sa'di's Boostan style and he has composed contradictory  work in contrast to Boostan, utilizing certain words and expressions of the popular people and weavers union, opposes the effects of rhetoric and in particular the fantasy imagery of explained in Boostan. The writers goal is answering the main research question, that means using fantasy imagery in the folkloric language structure and Ghasemi's success rate in it. the research result shows that the poet has used local and slang vocabulary, interpretations and terms of weavers union, special metonymies of popular people, as artistic techniques that can be classified as important works of that emphasize using rhetoric science, specially the science of expression and he has been partly successful in this field.

 

1-Introduction
Literature is a description of the ideal life of mankind, one of the most prominent branches of art whose most delicate branch is poetry, a poem that has been described as "the word of evil", and its foundation is based on imagination. Poetry is also the breakdown of the normal and logical norms of language, and in the field of literature, these norms are sometimes broken by "imaginary imagery" that is called semantic abnormalities. In defining the imaginary forms, we must inevitably explain the constituent parts of it (imagination and image). The most imaginative element of poetry is the mental image of objects and phenomena that have already been felt and experienced and are now not available to the senses. In order for the poet to set his imagination and his sensory experiences and arrange them in the form of artistic imagery, he needs imagination. An active force that organizes imaginary passive imagery. The imagination takes on the name of the image in order to get the concrete and tangible shape and to be touching others. "Literature consists of a collection of written and spoken works that best guesses and emotions in the form of selection The most beautiful words and the best faces. "(Shafiei Kadkani, 2008:34)
In the words of Jalil Tajlil, "Tale of Imagination, the science of expression, is one of the important issues in the history of literature, the poets have been subconsciously and less consciously concerned with it, and its history dates back to the beginning of the formation of Persian poetry. "(Tajlil, 1983: 43). In the field of the science of expression, poets such as Abusalik Gurgani, HanzalaBadghissi and FirouzMoshreqi have been experimenting and have been somewhat successful. In this area, poets have tended to use the essential basis of the episode, such as simile and metaphor, in their poems, and it may be said that the use of similes and simple metaphors in the poems of the poets of the 4th and 5th centuries Ajdh madrasas had a better effect.
In this research, Ghasemi Kermani'sMasnavi "Nistan" has been analyzed from the point of view of the artistic techniques and techniques of expressing science and writing on the portrait using folklore and in a relatively folkloric structure that has been used for verbal purposes.
The problem of this research is the analysis of the artistic tricks of the science of expression in Adib Ghasemi Kermani's book "Nistan" (1308-1238 AD), a contemporary poet and writer of Kermani, which has not been studied until now. This work is located both in terms of names and in terms of lexical and idiomatic aspects in contrast to Sa'di's "Boostan", using the words, phrases and expressions commonly used among the people of Kerman's street, especially the Shalbafan class. An example of a satirical objection to "Sa'diBoostan" is considered to be something unlikely due to innovation in the poetic style and its controversial aspect. In this regard, the present research attempts to answer the following questions while analyzing the work's artistic structure:
-What are the most important artistic techniques and rhetorical noises that have a folk structure?
-Qasemi Kermani has been successful in using the vocabulary and terminology of the classmates and the linguistic functions of the language in the creative creation of his work?
The necessity of research is that the analysis of the artistic techniques of the present work can show the effective role of artistic tricks in creating and highlighting comic and tongue language.
The main purpose of the research is to analyze the most important artistic techniques, which are the same rhetorical and non-imaginary forms in its folk form, and thus respond to research questions.
 
2_ Research Method
This research is conducted in a descriptive and librarian manner and by analyzing and accurately reviewing the poems contained in Adam Ghasemi Kermani's Nistan books and extracting the most important examples of the portrait as one of the most prominent artistic techniques embodied in this valuable work.
3. Discussion
In the history of Kerman, four characters with the name "Adib Kermani" have been found: Gholam Hossein Khan Afzal al-Mulk, AdibKermani, Sheikh Ahmad Aghili, AdibKermani, Adib al-SaqqirinKermani, Hakim Qasim bin Zain al-Abedin Kermani; In this paper, Qasim bin Zain al-Abedin Kermani. His most important works are "Nistan" and "Khrustan". The book under review in this study is Masnavi "Nistan", which apparently was the first written by AdibQasemiKermani, and was written in a literal and imitative manner from the book of Sa'diBostan. This book of poetry imitating Saadi's boson, or according to his own words, is in response to Sa'di's booth.
One of the techniques of creating beauty in poetry is the use of verbal imagery that has a long history and language of life in Persian. The history of the compilation of rhetorical books dates back to the fifth century AH, one of the most important works in this field is the book "Tarjomān al-Balagheh" by Mohammad bin Omar Raduyani, "Al-Mueiam Fi Muayyar al-aJam poems", Shams Qeys Razi and "Hadaeq al-seh r", Rashid and Vatvat Hint Had Rhetoric, in the term, is to match the word to the present and the audience. This knowledge is divided into three parts: meanings, exegesis, and exquisite. One of the most important of these, which is always and throughout the history of Persian poetry, even in the poems of the first poets of the third century AH, such as: Abu Salik Gorgani, Hanzale Badgheysy and Firouz Mashreqi, can also be manifested It has been found to be the science of expression, the equivalent of which is "the original" or "semantic abnormalities"
The science of expression in the lyrics of poets affects the nature and the surrounding environment, as AdibQasemiKermani is a poet who is more closely connected with the lush nature of the surroundings of Kerman and the city of Bardsir, and the effects of this connection in the context of his poems The theme is beautiful and subtle. The expression is devoted to the four topics, the permitted, the likeness, the metaphor, and the envy. As a result of this, the poet also uses them wherever these elements are needed and his artistic language is appropriate. His poem is decorated with this literary dimension.
 
4-Conclusion
The Masnavi of Nistan Adib Kermani has been influenced by the influence of Sa'di Boostan and even in the same marriage of Bousaneh, the pious sea, and its poet in the field of portraiture has also somewhat influenced Sa'di's valuable work. The Masnavi Neyestan, in terms of the appearance of the text, is particularly impressive in interpreting the classifications of the Kerman classifiers, it is a relatively rich work. And wherever the poet needs to draw a picture for the development of the subject and the subject of the subject, has taken.
 
The most important approach of the poet to the portrait of the poet in the Masnavi is the simile. metaphor, irony, and , metonomy, which can be said that simulation is one of the most important, most used and most effective rhetorical industry in this work, in such a way that Mirza Adib Kermani The poet is a humorous, humorous, folk song. Types of Morsal, Singular, Composite, and Allegoric Symbols are the most commonly used analogies of the aforementioned. The types of objects that are objective and tangible, including: different animals and birds, objects in the living environment, names of people or famous places in Kerman, idioms and tools are used in making these similes. Sometimes likeness to reasonable things , Spiritual and intangible can be seen in the context of Adib Kermani's poetry, but there are not many such tales.
 
The fact that metaphor is less used in Neyestan Masnavi, maybe for the simplicity of the word and for the sake of understanding the reader, which is generally a general audience because the metaphor, in addition to the beauty, also provokes the complexity of the word. The most commonly used metaphor for Neandert is Wenders' Assertion, and is a serious description of this.
 
In Neyestan Masnavi, due to the poet's tendency in slang and special attention to the classifications of the classmates and translators, attention has been paid to bringing folks and folk themes into account, especially with the use of anathema such as cougar sucking and towing an ant in someone's bag. ... Kenya's language has also come close to satire. Often, the sidewalks of this work are invented and implicitly, which has led to psychological and easy access to meaning for the general public. The most important goals of this poem are exaggeration and humiliation, and the nominal and current forms have been used in the same direction in the Neyestan Masnavi.
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Adib Ghasemi Kermani
  • Neyestan
  • rhetoric
  • fantasy imagery

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