عنوان مقاله [English]
Semiological of poetry by Michael Riffaterre is a reader based theory which is influential in European poetical analysis. In the present article the subject "beloved" has been studied in a poetical specimen of Shamloo. In semiological study of the given poem, while using a heuristic method, the readers using their literary competence have a postـreading act of the poem. The thought running over the poem is primarily based on "beloved" and the "child". By studying the accumulating relations and fundamental patterns of the poem, some guess sentencses were achieved based on hypogram model. The resulting matrix containing the special traits of the beloved in Shamloo's poem are as follows: hope for a lively future, the beloved's honest passion,the beloved's encouragement of poet, the beloved as a shelter for the poet. Moreover the special semiological features of the beloved in Shamloo's poetry can be accounted for as follows: it is of human effect, it is realistic, it is of individual identity, it is unique, it is available and terrestrial. besides, the motif of the poet to compose are concordance, sympathy, shelter, trustworthy, motif and agency. she likes to love and to be loved.
Composing love poetry has long been recognized as one of the main branches among the ways poems have been written. In literature of many countries, these poems are those that are enriched with the expression of the private feelings of the lover towards the beloved. In the written Persian poetry, this specific treatment of poems was first seen in the composition of Khorasani style Qasidas. “The beloved of the poem, is a special one whose renditions have gradually been settled in literature and has been observed since then in the poems of the following periods of history.” (Shamisa, 1370:42). Thus, ‘the Beloved’ has always been one of the prominent subject matters from the beginning of poetry until today. The ways in which different poets have treated ‘the Beloved’ has always been in constant change during different ages of Persian poetry. Even the descriptions of the face of ‘the Beloved’ differs from one poet to another. In the literature of old ages, not only the beloved has been deprived of any physicality, but also she was attained with any voice and identity of her own. In the modern period, Neema composes his portraits of the terrestrial and real beloved, a love that has its own identity and belongs to a natural person as well as a specific community. The modern love poetry “in a detaching movement from the traditions of the old age poetry, bases itself on the dissociation and parsing of a human and leans towards the inability to experience its unified essence. Therefore, it engages itself in a distinct theory of love and sets its structure upon a different foundation. With this orientation, a relationship is inaugurated that its culmination is union, alliance, also the independence and freedom of the individual.” (Mokhtari, 1378:91)
2. Approach and Methodology
This research, with an application of Michael Riffaterre’s theory of poem’s semiology, focuses on the notion of ‘the Beloved’ in a selected piece of Persian poetry within the framework of an analytic-descriptive manner. To achieve that, the poem “the One Who Returns Home from the Alley” written by Ahmad Shamloo is discussed which is filled with apt signs for this study and is then a perfect paradigm for a semiological analysis.
In the present study, the researchers initially attend to an exploratory reading of the poem “The One Who Returns Home from the Alley”. In this reading of the poem we are confronted with rather vague images of the Beloved. We will detect and analyze these vague illustrations. In post-action reading, whose aim is to study the ongoing relationships in the text, the notions ‘the Beloved’, ‘the child’, ‘birth’ and ‘home’ are analyzed. Then, the hypograms are presented that are the infra-structures of the poem which make a specific representation in the mind of the reader and are tools to establish relations between the poem and its origin as well as determining the layered semiological structure of the poet.
In the semiology of poetry, which is an exploratory reading of the figures in the poem, Rifatterre only reaches to the surface meaning, however, it must be noted that this meaning is essential for delving into the deeper levels of the text. The second stage of Rifattere’s theory is concerned with post-action reading which is based on the reading capabilities of the reader. Following Riffatter’s model, the researchers have put their readings of the accumulations of descriptions in the poem into the following: accumulations regarding the notions ‘the child’ and ‘the Beloved’ showing that the main thought running over the poem is that concerned with the poem itself and the Beloved. Moreover, in the descriptive matrixes of the poem the tropes revolving around ‘birth’, ‘the Beloved’ and ‘home’ show that the meaning behind the birth of the child is, in actual terms, the poetry of the poet which is getting composed in a tranquil home with the presence of the Beloved.
Another part of Riffaterre’s theory is about the patterns of hypogram. To put it succinctly, the inferred infra-structures of the present poem are as follows: The presence and the pure love of the Beloved impregnates the poet’s imagination and finally turns into poetry. The real Beloved is the first reader of the poems who reads them passionately and with unrelenting support. She rewards the poet for his composition of poetry. Her presence makes the poet neglect the fault-finding people and continue writing poems full of hope for the future. In the end, the relations between the accumulations, the descriptive system and the initial ideas, on the one hand, and on the other hand the structural matrixes of mathematics helps the authors of this research to draw a specific conceptual structure in the form of the following matrix: hope for a fruitful future, the honest enthusiasm of the Beloved, the Beloved being the first reader of the poet’s poems, the presence of the Beloved being an inspiration to the composition, the encouragement of the Beloved, the Beloved acting as the poet’s shelter, people’s indispensability of allowing the free verse in. The whole structure indicates the specific qualifications of the Beloved in Ahmad Shamloo’s poetry. The semiological study of the Beloved in this piece of poem from Ahmad Shamloo makes it evident that this Beloved has different attributes in comparison to the beloved in the old age poetry. Shamloo has regarded the Beloved with its human insight. A real Beloved that has an individual identity, is terrestrial and is not conquered over and silenced. A Beloved who is just like everyone else and likewise of the open-minded serves as an inspiration to the composition of the poet. She is a conscious soul, a company and a friend. She has set foot in the realm of poetry from poet’s real life, and before she has been a part of his poetry, she has been a central part of the poet’s reality. She has corrected his faults and together they become a unired. Shamloo’s love lingers on after the marriage, in the house, in his poetry and among the community. The Beloved of Shamloo’s poetry loves and is loved back. Union in his poetry is the beginning of adoration, growth and flourishing, reaching integrity and love. He can trust his Beloved and run to her in moments of agony. The results accounted from studying the Beloved in this sample of the modern Persian poetry, demonstrate that the mentioned quiddities in poetry could be analyzed and extended to reach the hidden signs of the text, if one is to use Michael Riffattere’s specific semiology.
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