مفـاخره؛ جلوه‌‌ای از نقد شعر در ادب فارسی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه بین‌‌المللی امام خمینی قزوین

2 دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه بین‌‌المللی امام خمینی قزوین

چکیده

در این مقاله مفاخره یا خودستایی به‌‌عنوان شیوه‌‌ای آزاد در نقد شعر مورد بررسی قرار می‌‌گیرد. مسأله این است که آیا می‌‌توان مفاخره را تاحدودی به‌‌عنوان یکی از مظاهر و ابزارهای نقد شعر در میان شاعران تلقی کرد؟ شاعران عموماً در تمجید از آثار خود یا ترجیح آن بر آثار دیگران تحت‌‌نفوذ احساسات و تأثرات درونی خود بوده و معیار دقیقی برای داوری در‌‌نظر نداشته‌‌اند؛ ازاین‌‌رو تحت‌‌تأثیر وضعیت حاکم‌‌بر زندگی فردی و اجتماعی خود، دیدگاه‌‌های عموماً تأثری خود را دربارة آثار خود در اشعارشان آورده‌‌اند. روش این مقاله برای تحقیق دربارة این مسأله مبتنی است بر تحلیل محتوا و توصیف نمونه‌‌های آثار منظوم به‌‌همراه بررسی رابطة مفاخره با سبک شعری شاعران و ذکر دلایلی برای روی‌‌آوردن شاعران به مفاخره؛ در‌‌نتیجه، مفاخره در مطاوی آثار ادبی فارسی به‌‌عنوان عنصری سبک‌‌ساز دیده می‌‌شود که می‌‌توان آن را از منظر نقد‌‌ ادبی حائز اهمیت دانست؛ ولی آن را در قالب نوعی از نقد موسوم‌‌به نقد بی‌‌معیار و نقد ذوقی یا نقد تأثری می‌‌توان بررسی کرد و به‌‌طور کلی مفاخره در شعر با هر دیدگاهی که صورت گیرد، در بسیاری از مواقع می‌‌تواند دربردارندة نقد شعر خود یا دیگران باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Boasting; a manifestation of poetics in Persian literature

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi fayyaz 1
  • Esmaeel Golrokh masule 2
1 Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature Dept, Imam Khomeini International University
2 Phd student of Persian Language and Literature Dept, Imam Khomeini International University (Corresponding author)
چکیده [English]

In this article, Boasting is considered as a free way in critique of poetry. The question is, can one consider the bloodshed to some extent as one of the manifestations and means of critique of poetry among the poets? Poets are generally influenced by their emotions and inner influences in praising their works or preferring them to the works of others, and have not considered a precise criterion for arbitration. The method of this paper for research on this issue is based on content analysis and descriptive examples of poetic works, along with an examination of the relationship between poetry's poetic style and the reasons for turning poets to the forefathers. As a result, it is seen in Persian literature as a lightweight element, which can be considered as literary criticism. However, it can be examined in the form of a kind of critique called "uncritical critique" and "critique of criticism" or critique. Generally speaking, in the poetry, in any case, it is possible to include a critique of poetry or others, in many cases.
 
1- Introduction
Mofakhereh (boasting) in the term "literary" refers to poetry that is a poet in terms of bounty and perfection and speaking to the good ethics and the righteousness of mankind due to the nature of self-esteem and courage and generosity and the likes of it, and perhaps the honorary and familial honors and In short, he has written in his honor and perfection. "(Mautman, 1364: 258). In this article, self-righteousness is considered as a free way in critique of poetry. Poets have generally been praised for their works or their preference for the works of others under the influence of their inner feelings and influences, and have not considered a precise criterion for arbitration; therefore, influenced by the state of governing of their individual and social life, their general viewpoints About their works in their poems. In many cases, poetry can include criticism of the poetry or others, in many cases.
 
2- Research methodology
This research is analytical-descriptive and based on content analysis. To do this, collecting information from library resources provided a good example of the poetic works of the poets. Then, based on the opinions of researchers and contemporary scholars, the theoretical foundations of the research were explained, then the collected samples of the poems were adapted to those theoretical foundations.
 
3-     Discussion
Because of the fact that the existence of literary works is undeniable, it can be arranged as a matter of research; however, the problem is that selflessness or self-sufficiency in a free manner in the discussion and analysis of poetry among past poets and Contemporary has been prevalent, and it seems that it can be regarded as some of the manifestations and means of critique of poetry among poets. Although the foolishness seems to be two sides of a coin (see: Parsa, 2006: 57); however, the study of Fakhr in the works of poets, as an independent perspective in critique of poetry, can be understood in light of their styles and perspectives. It can be very influential. Because, in order to identify the way of speaking and gaining knowledge of the poet's thoughts and feelings, we can pass through various ways. One of these ways is to examine the things the poet tells about himself and, possibly, to present his thoughts and opinions about his individual and social life and others. Hence, although it is overlapping with other literary subjects, due to its particular prominence in the context of Persian literary works, it is possible to discuss it with specific boundaries.
 
4-     Conclusion
From the review of this topic, the following results can be obtained:
The poem is generally unrelated to poetry style of the poets. Because some of the poets, by means of melancholy and discourse, put strange words and sophisticated scientific terms in the way of inventing a new style of poetry. The rejection and acceptance of discrimination in poetry is a relative subject and depends on the circumstances and circumstances. However, observance of moderation is more artistic. Some scholars bring poetry containing self-esteem into uncensored critique, which in terms of definitions and descriptions is similar to critique. Criticism is the most widespread critique, and most of all, criticisms have emerged. There are some reasons why he has a poem: First, praise for his arts and his abilities in composing poetry, which is the most commonly used form for maintaining the position of the poet and his artistic status. Second, a thought expressed in the form of imaginary language and imagery: this idea creates a poem that shows the personality and vision of the poet. Therefore, poets generally have tried to celebrate their thoughts. The poet is partially influenced by his family and his individual education and social status. Therefore, his thoughts, themes and style of speech are inspired by his personal manifestations. Like Khaghani, whose lyrics are from the point of view of technical and social critique, of course, with some kind of insight. But a poet like Mowlana, described in Masnavi, is more descriptive of the factors and attributes that influenced the creation of this book. In the face of self-righteousness, the poet is sometimes humbled by the poetry of another poetry. Perhaps in this perspective, a way of critique of poetry can be found. Because the poet compares his speech to the art of others, he criticizes his poems. Therefore, it can be said that there is no doubt in poetry with any point of view, it ultimately involves criticizing the poem itself or others.
 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • boasting
  • Impressionistic criticism
  • Judicicial criticism
  • poetics

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