تأثیر «هزار و یک شب» بر شاعر انگلیسی ساموئل تیلور کولریج

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی دانشگاه ولی‌عصر(ع) رفسنجان

چکیده

کولریج شاعر انگلیسی اواخر قرن هجده، «هزار و یک شب» را خاستگاه تخیّل خود می‌‌دانست و از این اثر بهره‌‌های فراوان برده‌‌است. در این مقاله به بررسی سهم «هزار و یک شب» در اندیشه و شعر این شاعر انگلیسی پرداخته‌‌ایم و حدود و ثغور این تأثیر را بیان داشته‌‌ایم. هدف از این مقاله مطالعۀ شعر کولریج و جستجو در آن برای یافتن رد پای «هزار و یک شب» است. روش تحقیق این مقاله، تطبیقی و از نوع ادبیات تطبیقی مکتب فرانسوی است که قائل به تأثیر مستقیم آثار بر نویسندگان است. از این دیدگاه باید میراث شاعر متقدم در شعر و اثر متأخر با دلیل و مدرک اثبات شود. نتیجۀ این بررسی نشان داد، «هزار و یک شب» نقش بسزایی در رشد ادبی این شاعر انگلیسی داشته‌‌است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Influence of Thousand and One Nights on Samuel Taylor Coleridge

نویسنده [English]

  • Roohollah Roozbeh
Assistant Professor of English Language and Literature Dept, Vali-e-Asr university of Rafsanjan
چکیده [English]

The English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) in the late 18th century considered the origin of his imagination to be Arabian Nights and has benefited enormously from it. He knew the source of his dream was Arabian Nights. This article examines the contribution of Arabian Nights to the thoughts and poetry of this English poet, and outlines the extent of this effect. The purpose of this article is to study Coleridge's poetry and scrutinize it to find the trace of Arabian Nights in his poetry. The research method of this article is based on the French comparative school, which deems the direct impact on writers of the earlier writers. From this perspective, the legacy of the early poet in poetry of the later poet should be proved by evidence. Results of this study showed that Arabian Nights played a significant role in the literary development of this English poet.
 
1-     Introduction
The romantic poetry of England owes Thousand and One Nights a lot. William Wordsworth, Robert Southey, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Lord Byron are romantic poets of the United Kingdom. These romantic poets were informed by Thousand and One Nights. Each one of these romantic poets looked at it from his own perspective and made his own and created new designs out of it. The following article examines the poetry of these English poets, influenced by Thousand and One Nights. Although Thousand and One Nights stories are narrative, but based on it thousand works have been formed in the world. William Wordsworth, for example, refers to Thousand and One Nights in Prelude. Influenced by Thousand and One Nights, Coleridge wrote the poem "Kubla Khan" and "Cristobel”. Robert Southey, is also indebted to this Eastern art, and has written two of his poems, "Thalaba: the Destroyer" and "Curse of Kahomah" based on Thousand and One Nights. Byron wrote his poem "Giauor" and "The Bride of Abydos" following Thousand and One Nights. Alfred Lord Tennyson wrote his poem titled "Reflection on The Thousand Nights of Nights" under the influence of Thousand and One Nights.
2-     Research methodology
The theoretical framework of our research in this essay is adaptation of the signs and the basis of this article is on the comparative influence theory of the French school of Claudio Guillen on the "Aesthetic of Influence". According to Guillen's theory, literary influence creates literary works, and literature is the creator of literature, that is to say, the effect of a literary work makes others write and publish their own literary works. What Guillen means by influence is the conscious borrowing of another poet, or reflection of the early poet that his later poet is unaware of. As for the reflection of the influence of the earlier poet on the later poet, he must refer to the set of elements preserved in the memory of the earlier poet. (Guillen, 1971: 18) Guillen makes a distinction between influence and parallelism. He sees the influence as an important and recognizable part of the origin of the work of art. "The discovery does not modify the effect of the value and value of a poem, but the study of influence attempts to make a judgment of value and does not seek to measure reality," he says (Ibid., 19). A critic and researcher should evaluate the performance or influence of the poet and writer A on poet B (ibid.). Therefore, the focus in this article is on the impact of Thousand and One Nights on the English literary Romantics, and to prove from this perspective the contribution of Thousand and One Nights to the English literary romanticism.
3-     Discussion
Samuel Taylor Coleridge born on October 21, 1772 – Died on July 25, 1834, is a romantic poet, critic, and philosopher of English romanticism and, along with his friend William Wordsworth, he was one of the founders of the British Romantic School. Coleridge is best known for his two works, "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" and "Kublai Khan", as well as his influential "Literary Biography," one of the most important works of the literary criticism of the Romantic era (Abrams, 1974: 324).
Coleridge himself says about Thousand and One Nights
"At six years old I remember to have read . . . the Arabian Nights’ Entertainments—one tale of which . . . made so deep an impression on me . . . that I was haunted by spectres, whenever I was in the dark—and I distinctly remember the anxious and fearful eagerness, with which I used to watch the window, in which the books lay—and whenever the Sun lay upon them, I would seize it, carry it by the wall, and bask, and read—My Father found out the effect, which these books had produced and burnt them. So I became a dreamer"(Quoted by Marcel, 2009: 6).
Coleridge’s father, who saw the influence of Thousands and One Nights on Coleridge, burned Thousand and One Nights books. Coleridge, afterwards, disobeyed his father for burning of the books. His father believed that Thousands and One Nights stories might be addictive stories. Gilfillam quotes a conversation of Coleridge with Hazlitt, in which Coleridge tells Hazlitt, "Do you like the Thousands and One Nights? In answer to Coleridge, Hazelit says no. "That’s why you are not a dreamer" (Jillfilam, 1849: 223). From this conversation we can comprehend that Thousand and One Nights is the source of Coleridge’s dream and imagination, and he still recommends to his friends that they should pay attention to Thousands and One Nights, because one Thousand Nights and One Nights makes the authors imaginative. Not only does he recommends his dear friend reading this oriental work, but Coleridge also advises all his poets to read it, because Thousand and one Nights can be the source of poetry and imagination. Hence, the element of the imagination of the Thousand and one Nights has influenced the poetry and thought of this English poet. The poem "Christabel", "Kabala khan" and the poem "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner " are influenced by Thousands of Nights (ibid., 21).
4-     Conclusion
Coleridge’s verse has been influenced by Thousand and One Nights. Lyric poems like "Kublai Khan", "Christobel" and " The Rime of the Ancient Mariner " can be said to have benefited from this eastern work, and Coleridge himself is aware of the effect of Thousand-Nights and has repeatedly read this work. He considered  Thousand and One Nights  to be the source of his imagination and has benefited prominently from this work. He knew the source of his dream was Thousand and One Nights. It can be said that one of the sources of the poetry of "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner " was the Sindbad Bahri travels that Coleridge has read and took inspiration from. Both tracks the theme of travel and see travel as the source of human sophistication. Both the Ancient Mariner and Sinbad lose their crew in the sea on their journeys; they wander in the sea, they encounter a storm, and they are left alone for a long time. Both are saved by prayer. Both the Ancient Mariner and Sinbad are great story-tellers. “Kublai Khan” also uses the themes that exist in Thousand and One Nights.  
 
 
 
 
1. Abrams, Meyer Howard, and Geoffrey Harpham. A glossary of literary terms. Cengage Learning, 2011.
2.Attar, Samar. Borrowed Imagination: The British Romantic Poets and Their Arabic-islamic Sources. Lexington Books, 2014.
 
3. Bush, Douglas. Mythology and the Romantic Tradition in English Poetry. Cambridge: MA.1969.
 
4. Caracciolo, P. L. The Arabian Nights in English literature: studies in the reception of the Thousand and One Nights into British culture. Macmillan.1988.
 
5. Coleridge, S.T. The Rime of The Ancient Mariner. Lulu Publication. 1950.
 
6. Gilfillan, G. A Second Gallery of Literary Portraits.. James Hogg. 1852.
7. Guillen, Claudio. “The Aesthetic of Influence," in: idem, Literature as System: Essays Toward the Theory of Literary History Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971.  
8. Irwin, Robert. The Arabian nights: A companion. Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2014.
9. Lupton, M.J., " The Rime of the Ancient Mariner": The Agony of Thirst. American Imago27(2), pp.140-159. 1970.
10. Marson, J. Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Info base Publishing. 2009.
11. Roozbeh, Roohollah and Alireza, Anushirvani. 'The Influence of Hafez on Alfred Lord Tennyson the poet laureate of England', Journal of lyrical Literature, Sistan va Balouchestan University. Vol. 11 No. 21, pp. 143-162.2013.
12. Tasouji, Abdullatif. Thousands and One Arabian Nights (trans). Qom: Qalam Publication. 2012.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Influence
  • Arabian Nights
  • Imagination
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge

1- روزبه، روح‌‌اله؛ انوشیروانی، علیرضا. تأثیرگذاری حافظ بر ملک‌‌الشعرای انگلیس آلفرد لرد تِنِسِن، پژوهشنامۀ ادب غنایی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، دورۀ 11، شمارۀ 21، صص 162-143، زاهدان: 1392.

2- طسوجی،عبداللطیف، هزار و یک شب، قم: چاپ قلم مکنون، 1391.

3- Abrams, Meyer Howard, and Geoffrey Harpham. A glossary of literary terms. Cengage Learning, 2011.

4- 4.Attar, Samar. Borrowed Imagination: The British Romantic Poets and Their Arabic-islamic Sources. Lexington Books, 2014.

5- Bush, Douglas. Mythology and the Romantic Tradition in English Poetry. Cambridge: MA,1969.

6- Caracciolo, P. L. The Arabian Nights in English literature: studies in the reception of the Thousand and One Nights into British culture. Macmillan,1988.

7- Coleridge, S.T. The Rime of The Ancient Mariner. Lulu Publication, 1950.

8- Gilfillan, G. A Second Gallery of Literary Portraits. James Hogg, 1849.

9- Greenblatt, Stephen. The Norton Anthology of Literature, Vol. 1. W. W, 2006.

10- Guillen, Claudio. The Aesthetic of Influence, in: idem, Literature as System: Essays Toward the Theory of Literary History Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971.  

11- Irvin, Robert. The Arabian nights: A companion. Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 1997.

12- Lupton, M.J, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner: The Agony of Thirst. American Imago, 27(2), pp.140-159, 1970.

13- Marson, J. Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Info base Publishing, 2009.