سیر کاربرد و جلوه‌های ادبیِ دو واژۀ معمار و معماری (در شعر کلاسیک فارسی از آغاز تا جامی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مهاباد

2 استادیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ایلام

10.22111/jllr.2020.5285

چکیده

  معماری رابطۀ استواری با ادبیات و هنرهای زیبا دارد. بی­تردید همان طور که شعر به عنوان بخش عظیمی از ادبیات ایران، نقش و تأثیر بسزایی در معماری سنتی ایران ایفا کرده است، متقابلاً هنر معماری نیز در ادب پارسی جایگاه ویژه­ای دارد؛ در این مقاله به بررسی و کاربرد ادبی واژه‌های «معمار و معماری» در شعر پرداخته شده است. این تحقیق به شیوۀ نظری و کمی، دیوان شعرای کلاسیک فارسی از هزار سال پیش تا جامی را جامعه­ی آماری خود قرار داده و پاسخ این پرسش را تبیین می­­کند؛ که آیا واژه­های معمار و معماری در شعر پارسی کاربردی داشته و شیوه­ کاربرد و قدمت آن به چه دوره­ای برمی­گردد­؟ توجّه شعرا به ساخت ترکیب­های تشبیهی و استعاری، نمادها و سایر صورخیال از دو واژه مورد بحث این حقیقت را تبیین می­سازد که هنر معماری چون رکنی استوار در اتحاد و پیوند خود با سایر ارکان، تمدن و فرهنگ ایرانی را ساخته و پی‌ریزی کرده­است. یافتن این واژه­ها در شعر از قدمت این هنر فنی نیز حکایت دارد و در شناخت و بازشناسی و بازنشانی معادل­های کهن معمار ـ که واژه­ای عربی است ـ معادل­های فارسی آن مانند مهندس(engineer) معرب اندازه­گیرنده و اندازیار، سازنده و استاد را پیشنهاد کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Survey on persin literature till Jami and analyzing the word architect and architecture

نویسندگان [English]

  • mehri pakzad 1
  • malek shoaei 2
1 Assistant professor of Persian Language and Literature Dept, Islamic Azad University,Mahabad branch.
2 Assistant professor of Persian Language and Literature Dept, Islamic Azad University,ilam branch.
چکیده [English]

 
Abstract
Architectural has got a firm relationship with literature, Fine arts and engineering; certainly, the poem as a large part of Iranian literature has played an important role and influences on the traditional architecture, In contrast, the effect of Architecture As well as an art form in Persian literature is provoking thought. Until now architectural experts are searching for traces of poetry in architecture but none of the architectural footprint in poetry and its transformation according to poetry, have not represented any research. This article is only a glimpse of the literary use of words of Architect and Architecture in poetry. Theoretical and quantitative research methods in the court of poets explains the answer to this question from thousands of years ago that have words “Architect” and “Architecture” ever been applicable in Persian poetry? The method and its antiquity goes back to which period? Poet’s attention to making combinations of metaphorical, symbols imagery, poetic and mystical illustrations by using words “Architect” and “Architectural”, will explain that architectural arts is one of the most important pillars in art and culture’s unity and it has played one of the main roles to found civilisation’s base in Iran. Having these two words in poems will interpret antiquity of this type art as well.


 
 
1-Introduction
Architecture has a close relation with literature and Fine Arts; even though poem as a huge part of Iran literature has a great role in Iranian traditional architecture, Architectural Art has a special role in Persian literature. This theoretical and quantitative study investigate Literary application of the words "Architect and architecture" in Poetry. Statistical population of this study is the poets’ divan of Classical Persian from a thousand years ago to Jami. The study aim ate answering this question that are "Architect and architecture" words applied in Persian literature and it comes back to which period?  "Architect and architecture" are used frequently in poem as figure of speech like metaphor, simile, and symbol; it reveals that Iranian civilization is constructed by many factors but Architectural Art is one of the main factors. The antiquity of these words are discovered by searching classical text. Miʿmār (Architect) is an Arabic words and other Persian words like Mohandas (a person who use meter or measure things), builder and master.
 
2-Research methodology
The current study is fundamental research based on objective of study and it is historical research based on research methodology. In this library research Architect and architecture are extracted from poetical works; the information are analyzed based on literary and stylistic analysis to answer the research questions. Frequency method and charts are used in this study to reveal the importance and literary usage of these words in Persian poetry.
 
3-Discussion
Edward (1386: 42) believed that architecture is the expression of emotion and sensation formed by structures in space and poetry is the verbal representation of emotion. The current study use modern theoretical foundations of vocabulary archeology or etymology and related sciences in poetical works as qualified documents order to study the word architect   from past till now and find the other related words which related to architect art.
 
4-Conclusion
Poem and literature by using literary terms and concepts or common memory of people are intend in opening the new window for better understanding and comprehending the concepts. The finding of the current study reveal that among Khorasani poets style (Rudaki, Ferdowsi, Babatahir, Farrokhi, Manouchehri, Kassai, Anzari, Khayyam, Nasser Khosro, Massoud Saad, Sana'i &Anvari) the word architect just used by Massoud Saad, Sana'i and Anvari; the words were used just by Khaghani as one of the two poet of Azerbijan style (Khaghani & Nizami) and among Iraqi poet style are used by Saadi, Molavi, Amir Khosro Dehlavi, Oohadi, Saif Fergani, Hafiz and Jami. The finding shows that these words were used occasionally in the middle of five century and it was frequently in seven and nine century by Rumi and Jami. The findings showed that the words (Master, Designer, Engineer and Builder) were used as alternative expression of architecture from ninety years ago and classical texts had no idea in using these words and the other words might be used instant in past. The isolated study is needed to investigate the other words.
In mystical literature "architect" is a metaphor for God. It used in metaphorical expiration like Everlasting Architect, Great Architect and Architect of the Word. In ode and sonnet the architect is a metaphor for King, nobleman, whether beloved and minister or agency; metaphorical expiration like the property owner or the garden property owner. Ambitious architect, Architect of religion, architect of the five religious shrines, architect of religion, architect of the day, architect of taste, architect of love and architect of wisdom are other additions to the simile. The statistical findings show that below poet used architect more than others:
First Jami: With 7 cases in use in relation to the number of divine verses (5410), 0. 129%. One hundred twenty nine thousand percent. Second Khaghani: With 7 cases in proportion to the number of divine verses (13300), it was 0.052%. Fifty-two thousand percent.
Third Rumi: With 9 applications in proportion to the number of verses (36360), 0.024%. Twenty-four thousandth percentile.
More define conclusion is that except Khaghani these words were used more frequently by Jami in his period. His interest in using these words show the importance of Building, Architect and Architecture in Persian literature and deep relation between architect art and literature. Jami is the first poet in the tale of Yusuf and Zulikha to bring the word "architect" and "architecture" in detail to the builder. In general, it can be said that the importance and position of the architect and architect is to the extent that in more than 29 poetical works of the two styles of Khorasan and Iraqi and the intermediate style of these two, namely Azerbaijani, only 11 poets have used these two words in the poem. Everywhere the role and position of the architect, namely, Bana, Avesta, Master, Builder, Designer and Engineer as well as Architecture and Construction in the form of these two words (Architect and Architecture) are important, bold, valuable, positive, Useful, artistic and meticulous job descriptions have been introduced.
Another benefit of such research is its application to the scripting of events and stories of centuries and centuries, since submitting to the documents lying in the middle of the texts minimizes the error in depicting the past.
 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Architect
  • Architectural
  • poem
  • Mysticism
  • imagery
 

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