عنوان مقاله [English]
The Modernism movement, referred to as Modernism, emerged in France in the second half of the nineteenth century and quickly found its way to other countries in the world. Iranian poetry in constitutional period with some poet’s novelty advanced toward change and development. However, the modern literary history officially began with Nima, and afterwards, each of his students continued their own way. In the 1340s, influenced by Western literary schools and the relatively political and social openness, Ahmad Reza Ahmadi and Yadollah Royayi were among the most prominent modern figures that took a new path in the field of poetry and sought a breakthrough in poetry. The purpose of the present study is to prove that whether Ahmadi and Royaei poems are regarded as modern works, and based on modernism theory, is it permissible to attribute them as modern.The findings of this research -using content analysis and library tools- reveal that the criteria of Modernism are prominent both in poetry and content of these works, so that these two can be considered as the most modern contemporary Iranian poets..
The modernism movement, known as modernism, emerged in France in the second half of the nineteenth century and quickly made its way to other countries in the world.In recent years, and in the aftermath of Iranian communication with the West, modern thought has influenced every aspect of Iranian life, including art.New poetry in Iran began with the efforts of "Abolghasem Lahouti, Taqi Rafat, Shams Kosmai, and Jaafar Khamenei" (Hasanli,1383:29), but the history of modern literature officially began with Nima.Conscious of the international community, Nima sought to bring Persian poetry to the modern world.He "showed a new way to the poets after them, each of them to experience a new world and take on new path" (lbid ,1383;31), so that some of the poets went beyond the traditions of Nima and completely structured They overwhelmed and created new flows of poetry, almost all of which were a complete break with the legacy of traditional poetry and a raw imitation of the style of modern Western poetry.One of these streams is the New Wave Flow, followed by volume poetry by poets such as Ahmad Reza Ahmadi and Yadollah Royaii.Given the acceleration of social, economic, political, and consequently transnational developments in recent decades, it is imperative to examine these developments in literature to prove to what extent modern world thought in modern Persian poetry and it's authors. It has penetrated.The present study aims at exploring the components and manifestations of modernism in the form and content of Ahmad Reza Ahmadi's poetry as ensign of the New Wave and Yadollah Royaii, the founder of volume poetry, in response to the questions that:
1)Are Ahmadi and Rooyaii's poems modern?
2)According to modernism, is it permissible to apply modern adjectives?
3)What are the features of modernism and modern Western poetry that can be found in the poems of these two poets?
This research is based on content analysis and using library tools. By referring to the library and compiling books on modernism and taking notes on them, relying on the views of the authors in the field of modernism, Theories have been discussed and analyzed by the poets.
Along with the political movement of Iranian society towards modernization and urbanization culture in the thirties and forties of Iran, the literary community of Iran was in line with this, and just as Nima had made a revolutionary move in contemporary poetry, there were also some poets. Educated in the West, they began a movement that, although opposed, eventually led to the birth of a noisy stream called the New Wave."It was a wave because it was a rebellious, uninhibited movement that had been destined for destruction not from the beginning; it was destroying all the formal, structural, conceptual, and semantic foundations of traditional Persian poetry, and "New"because of The past was disruptive, and new perspectives were beyond the realities"(Hosseynpoor chafi ,1390 :292). After some time, some of the poets came together and said that they would issue a statement calling it volumeism.In fact," volumeism is not a new and separate flow in contemporary poetry; it is another form of new wave and its logical continuation"(Hosseynpoor,chafi,1390;300).
The Waveists " favored the "theory of art for art" and gave importance to the form, but in the opinion of the New Wave poets, one of them, they did not follow certain (principles) and form, and that they were thinking of producing a manifesto(assertion).This led them to express more formally in their poems"(Kasi,1389;10) and to link with modernism from modernist poets and to form modern Iranian poets through the entry of formalism, which is itself a literary school.They have been left out of the content because of the profound effect on the form(lbid,1390;318).
Poetry is a new wave and volume of commitment because by condemning "social commitment and any commitment other than linguistics, they find themselves free from all the plight, misery and oppression of the day, and their art even unrelated to the struggle for freedom of thought. He thinks"(Hassanli,1383;102).For this reason, the poets of these two movements, in contrast to "Art for Society" present art for art, and in their poems speak of personal issues, dreams, memories, hopes, and hopelessness, which is one of their characteristics.
One of the criticisms that the New Wave and volume poets have always been concerned with is the complexity and ambiguity of their language.It must be said that poets of the new wave and volume are deliberate in their ambiguity and are reluctant to present new forms or constructions or to disagree with accepted standards and standards in the way they are used.The ambiguity in the structure of language and imagery is what poets of the New Wave, and especially the volume of poetry, call contemporary poetry, and the volatility of volume poetry leads them to elitism, one of the most striking features of modernism.Given that the volume flow originated from the heart of the new wave, Hossynpour Chafi in the book Contemporary Persian Poetry Stories describes the characteristics of these two streams of poetry: the discovery of new and abstract relations between objects and the creation of surreal images. Complicated and ambiguous, avoiding weight and rhyme and prose language, syntactic acquaintance or norm, commitment and individualism, disregard for the element of thought, meaning and tendency to fantasy(Hosseynpour Chafi,1384؛306-317)
Ahmadi and after him Royaii came the beginning of the forties, when Iranian literary society was thirsty for new ways, and their poetry reflects the pseudo-modernist culture of that period because of their distinctive rupture with the legacy and traditions of traditional poetry and the imitation of style and style. It is modern west. By exploring modernist elements and criteria in the poems of these two poets, the influence of modernist thought can be seen both in the form of poetry and in the content.These two poets in the form of following the formalists believe in art theory for art.Avoiding the weight and tendency to prose and different forms of poetry, they wrote modern poetry.In the connection of language with modernism, the language of Ahmadi's poetry, and especially the Royaii, is vague and complex, and in fact they have become familiar with syntactic seizures.Also, the images in the poetry of these two are different from those of classical poetry, so that the image is no longer in the form of similes or classical metaphors;Rather, we find in these poems a multitude of image and surreal images that are characteristic of modern poetry.Since Ahmadi and Royaii are form-oriented poets, so their poetry is meaningful and engaging.Also, the core of their poems is individualism; for this reason, in their poems, The person is at hand؛ who expresses personal issues.
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