تحلیل زبان زنانه در شعر سعیده بنت‌ خاطر الفارسی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای زبان و ادبیات عربی دانشگاه رازی

2 استاد زبان و ادبیات عرب دانشگاه رازی

3 دانشیار زبان و ادبیات عربی دانشگاه رازی

10.22111/jllr.2020.5294

چکیده

زبان همواره محملی برای ظهور باورهای ذهنی، تفکرات و احساسات درونی شاعران بوده است. در این‌میان زنان شاعر با احساسات، عواطف و زبان زنانه موفق به خلق ادبیات زنانه شده‌اند. «سعیده بنت‌خاطر» شاعره برجسته عُمانی است که توانسته با کاربرد زبان، جهانی زنانه را در شعر خویش خلق کند و به تحولات عمیقی در حوزه زبان شعری زنانه دست یابد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی یکی از پیشگامان شعر زنانه‌ عُمان، با تحلیل سیر تحولی ادبیات‌ زنانه در شعر عربی؛ زبان زنانۀ این شاعر را در دو سطح واژگانی و نحوی، با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی بررسی می‌کند و  به این سوال اصلی پاسخ داده است که  بنت‌خاطر برای القای چه مفاهیمی از زبان زنانه استفاده کرده ‌است؟ یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهد که وی از واژگان زنانه برای بیان مقاصد مختلفی مانند: مخالفت با اندیشه‌ی مردسالار، بیان مفاهیم دینی و بیان احساسات بهره گرفته است؛ دلی مالامال از تبعیض و نابرابری حقوق زنان در جامعه عربی دارد و اثرات این تفکر فمنیستی در جای جای اشعارش به چشم می‌خورد. همچنین شاعر از ساختار نحوی زبان زنانه با گفتاری قاطع برای بیان مقاصد سیاسی، اجتماعی خویش بهره می‌گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the language of women in the poems of " Saida Bente khater Alfarsi"

نویسندگان [English]

  • abouzar ghasemi arani 1
  • Yahya Marouf 2
  • Ali salimi 2
  • sdaryar hemati 3
1 PhD student of Arabic Language and Literature Dept, University of Kermanshah
2 Professor of Arabic Language and Literature Dept, University of Kermanshah
3 Associate Professor of Arabic Language and Literature Dept, University of Kermanshah
چکیده [English]

 
Abstract
     Language has always been a place for the emergence of subjective beliefs, thoughts and inner feelings of poets. Meanwhile, women's poets have succeeded in creating female literatures with emotions, emotions and feminine language."Saida Bente khater Alfarsi " is a prominent Omani poet who has been able to create a global female language in her poetry with the use of language and to achieve profound developments in the field of feminine poetry.The purpose of this study was to identify one of the pioneers of the female poetry of Oman by analyzing the evolution of female literatures in Arabic poetry; it examines the female language of the poet in two levels of lexical and syntactic levels through a descriptive-analytical method and answers the main question. What ideas do you use for feminine language to induce?The findings show that he used feminine vocabularies to express various purposes, such as: opposition to patriarchal thoughts, the expression of religious concepts and the expression of emotion; a clear cause of the discrimination and inequality of women's rights in Arab society, and the effects of this feminist thinking in place of his poems To be seen.The poet also uses the syntactic structure of feminine language with a decisive say for his political and social purposes.
 
 
 
 
1-Introduction
Throughout history, language that originates from the creation of literary works has been a masculine institution, and women were not able to express their views, experiences and thoughts in this male institution, but today language is influenced by gender differences, during social processes The status of women's poetry has also been transformed by the promotion of the status of women in Arab countries.
Contemporary women women, despite the political and social constraints, also noted the laws and traditions of expressing emotions, mental and language sentiments in the field of art to their feminine identity, which has contributed to the formation of feminine language in their poems, in particular The contemporary era of Oman can be considered a literary blessing for women of the country's poetry.
"Sayyida Bente al khater founded a woman's poem in oman, with a different approach. Then other Omani poets, including Shemisa al-Nomani, Hassat al-Bada'i and Fathiyah al-Sucureya, continued this route. Through these poems, these female poets were able to devise a different method and a new cultural reading for feminine language, which was generally different from the current content of Omani poetry. They broke into the creation of free poetry by breaking down the classical veil of chains and traditional forms, and depicting cultural and social patterns appropriate to women's issues, and transforming women's poetry in different forms, contrary to the traditional taste and imitation of masculine poetry and old values. . "(ayahyai, 2015: 19)
The main objective of this research is to identify Oman's contemporary poetry and to analyze the language of Sa'ida Bint; one of the most prominent contemporary poets and critics of Omani.
 
2-Research methodology
The basis of this research is not merely linguistic analysis and partial statistics; the poet's collection of poetry forms the statistical society of this research; the authors, using a descriptive-analytical method, examine two different levels of language (lexical level and Syntax) in the women's poem "Sa'ida Bennet"; The level of the vocabulary divided into three parts: vocabulary (female-maternal-taboo) -compounds
The female and current female vocabulary is divided; words, combinations, and verbs are extracted according to the context of the sentence. At the syntactic level, according to Lakoff's theory, the Quranic-Wonderful sentences and emphasis on poetry have been extracted and analyzed.
3-Discussion
 The concept of female literacy is the study of gender in the language that analyzes the differences in the linguistic behavior of women and men; the themes and uses that are specific to the language of women and show the vocabulary, vocabulary and syntax of the language of men and women. These differences are usually found in The rate and frequency of specific linguistic elements are such that the high frequency of a particular linguistic element, such as short sentences, along with other elements labeled "feminine verbal", makes the text a feminine "(Fotohi Roodmagni, 2011: 398)
But some theorists have raised the question of whether literary language is gendered? And there is something as a feminine language in literature? In the face of this, there are several different narratives. Some writers such as Natalie Saroute do not classify feminine and masculine literature. Literature is only literature, and the author's gender does not necessarily interfere with it. "Women's literature does not mean the exact meaning of it, just as one can not speak of feminine music or feminine philosophy." (Sarot, 1364: 32) But unlike Sarouti, Lakoff believes that there is a proprietary or linguistic language that includes specific linguistic features, indicating the difference and lack of authority. He speaks of differences between the language of women and men, including the fact that women are more likely to speak than men and their conversation topics are different. They allow the speaker to dominate the conversation. Do you say women with words and short sentences like the right? What good and ... encourage the speaker, respect the standards of the language and respect their audience, as well as women use the language to create and talk social conversations and do not act like competitive men (Mod., 1368: 108 ) This belief in Lakoff is confirmed by the theory of language sociology scholars, including Jakobson, who argue that the most important goal of language is to communicate. In this view, the language is a social phenomenon that has long been the subject of study of human beings. So there is a deep correlation between linguistic structures and social structures. New feminist linguistic researchers, instead of generalizing women's indices to women's texts, examine the regional and gender aspects of gender relations and gender patterns of language use based on specific communities. (Cameron, 2006: 3746), on the basis of which there are several features that can be named in the context of a woman's text.
4-Conclusion
Sa'ida Bent khater is one of the pioneers of Oman's female poetry, who has been able to create a world of feminine language in her poetry with the use of language, and to achieve profound changes in the field of feminine poetry.
Lakof is the first to raise the issue of feminine language. In this research, the syntactic level of feminine language was examined based on his ideas. By studying the poet's poetry and analyzing the feminine language in his poem, the following results were obtained:
1. Sa'ida Benthoth's poetry is created by the mind and language of women who have been living in Amman by explaining the position of a contemporary woman in feminine language in her poem.
2. He used feminist vocabularies to express various purposes, such as: opposition to the idea of ​​patriarchy, the expression of religious concepts, and the expression of emotion; it is a clear cause of the discrimination and inequality of women's rights in the Arab community, and the effects of this feminist thinking are replaced in their poems She eats .
3. The use of female vocabulary in the poetry of female poets differs according to the cultural and social differences of societies in which they are cultivated and developed, but Bennett helps to fill the romantic dimension of his poetry from female vocabularies to express emotional-emotional content. And has a tendency to explicitly use feminine words.
4. Bennett's poems are maternal and emotional; even some of his ancestors, such as (al-Hafiday, al enraatan), indicate that the poet is the poet of a woman.
5- Unlike women in Arab culture and society, women reveal inspirations and gender issues with taboo words.
6. The poet of the woman who is studying for his particular position in his community uses the syntactic structure of feminine language (question / wonder words) with a clear statement to express his political and social goals, and emphasizes the concept of female emotions to the singer's induction he does.
7. Bennett, for the sake of semantic roles, puts forward such as: (doubt, encouragement, desire and desire, glory and grief) to inspire his concept to the audience.
 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Feminine Language
  • Contemporary Poetry
  • Oman
  • Saida Bente khater Alfarsi
 

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