عنوان مقاله [English]
“Patriotism” is in humans ‘nature and contemporary poets and authors utilize the concept in their works or poems. This article, in comparative and based on American schools analyze two points of Ahmad Shamlu, Persian poet, and Nizar Qabbani, Arabic poet, in order to examine either differences or similarities of thoughts of these poets. There are many similarities in the ups and downs of social and literary life of the poets. “Love of the nation” have been put in their poems and there is a hope in them for their future of homeland to get better and brighter. They also have named various cities of their country in their poesies. Both of them have suffered from being far away from their home and have reflected the feeling in their works. Nizar feel ashamed for his country that is divided into smaller component and against him, Shamlu distinguishes between heavenly and earthly love.
Patriotism and devotion to one’s country is a laudable and natural feeling. Poets and contemporary authors have expanded upon this concept in their works and poems in a variety of ways. Nizar Qabbani and Ahmad Shamlou are among poets who have addressed the concept of homeland in their works, and they share many similarities in this regard.
In addition to romantic poetry, like other committed poets, they have focused on political, ethnic and national issues. In the works of Ahmad Shamlou and Nizar Qabbani, love is not confined to physical love or expression of love to the beloved and mistresses; rather, it is extended to deeper themes such as love for man, beauty, homeland and freedom of thought. Both poets look for a new image of their mental world in the search of justice, freedom and respect for human beings, and both of them have experienced two major events in their social and political life. Qabbani witnessed the defeat of the Arabs by Israel in the Haziran in 1967 and Shamlou saw coup d'état of August 18, 1953 in Iran. Undoubtedly, there are some subtle differences in the expansion of any subject between poets and authors, the unravelling of which could be fascinating.
Exploring the similarities and differences of poets in description of the same subject is one of the functions of comparative literature, and since the goal of comparative is to draw a comparison between a certain literary style and the literary traditions of other nations, or compares a literary work in one language with its counterpart in another language, this paper, drawing on the American school of thought, which is irrespective of any historical relationships or influences and rests solely on the principle of similarity and authenticity, seeks to analyze poems of Nizar Qabbani and Ahmad Shamlou in terms of the concept of homeland.
In every country, poets often utilize the weapon of literature to defend their history and culture, thus contributing to ethnic solidarity of their own country. One subject that has been the concern of many poets is homeland. Nizar Qobbani, the Syrian poet, and Ahmad Shamlou, the Iranian poet, are among poets whose works are rift with the expression of love and interest in the homeland, though there are subtle differences in their manner of displaying this love. The poems of these two poets are largely inspired by and mirror the incidents and events in their country. By examining the works of these two poets, we not only learn about these two prominent literary figures in the literature of Iran and Syria, but also explore the political and social situation of these two countries as well as the intellectual ideology and concerns of the two poets.
This paper, based on the framework of "comparative literature", which rather than being restricted to interaction of literary figures on each other, focuses on the outcome of sharing the status and way of thinking, examines the concept of homeland in the works of these two poets and seeks to answer the following question:
1. Are there any similarity between Ahmad Shamlou and Nizar Qabbani, two famous and contemporary poets in Arabic and Persian literature, with regard to the concept of homeland?
2- Research methodology
This is a descriptive research that adopts the comparative approach endorsed by the American school of thought. That is, by analyzing intertextual evidence, it attempts to elaborate and explore similarities and differences in the attitude of two poets towards the concept of the homeland.
Qabbani mingles love for women and homeland in his poems and occasionally portrays his homeland as an enchanting woman. He makes use of natural phenomenon of his homeland like clouds, stars and dates, expressing his love to cities he had inhabited while exhibiting a sense of resentment and shame for the disintegration of his homeland. The feeling of alienation and distance from the homeland abounds in poems written in the last years of his life.
Nazar mentions the name of cities he has lived in, like Damascus and Sham, describing them as the most beautiful and wonderful cities in the world, with a penchant longing to return and visit them again.
Despite the fact that he is disappointed with the reality of the Arab community, he expresses hope that one day his homeland will reclaim its past glory and solidarity, while stripping off the vile of colonization and occupation.
Shamlou, unlike Nazar, believes that the love for homeland is transcendental and beyond the love for worldly mistresses. He disassociates the heavenly love from the earthly love, pointing to the culture and cultural heritage while his expression of love for the homeland is associated with a sense of affinity with the people and his compatriots.
In some cases, his poems assume an epic tone while elsewhere he imagines his homeland without any vile with a particular innocence. In addition to bringing up the name of Iran in his poems, Shamlou refers to different cities and these poems instill a religious and humanistic sense in the reader. Both poets hope for a better and brighter future for their homeland. Shamlou adopts an ambiguous or sometimes clear and direct tone in portraying a brighter future for his homeland, arguing that disappointment will be tantamount to annihilation.
Nazar Qabbani and Ahmad Shamlou have both expressed love for their homeland. In statements and phrases that exhibit love for his country, Qabbani exploits natural phenomena and manifestations of his homeland like clouds, stars and dates. On the contrary, Shamlou posits that the love of the homeland is transcendental and heavenly, referring to the cultural and cultural heritage such as "Hoze Khaneh" and "the thousand mirrors of the six-cornered tile". Although their love for the homeland is not the same, it has bestowed a distinctive and unique feature to their poems and carved their names on the pages of history. It seems that mere expression of love for the homeland is more tangible in the poems of Nazar Qabbani and Shamlou has intertwined the love for homeland with love for other concepts. They both have specifically referred to different cities in their poems, which illustrates the experiences of living in those cities.
1- Abdeh, S. Psychological analysis of the Nazar Qabbani’s character (First edition). Beirut, Lebanon: Ma’aref. (2013).
2- Al-Hawari, S.S. Woman in the poems of Nazar Qabbani. Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Bahar. (2008).
3- Dastgheib, A. The criticism of Ahmad Shamloo's works (A. Bamdad) (Fifth Edition). Tehran, Iran: Avvin, (1994).
4- Farrokhzad, P. The mother Messiah, “The symbol of woman in the life and works of Ahmad Shamloo”. (First edition). Tehran, Iran: Jahan. (2004).
5- Ghanimi Halal, M. Comparative Literature (S.M. Ayatollah Zadeh Shirazi, Trans.). Tehran, Iran: Amir Kabir. (1994).
6- Habib, B. The techniques of expression in poems of Nizar Qabbani. (First edition). Beirut, Lebanon: Arab Institute for Studies and Publishing. (1999)
7- Kashani, M. A.S. Comparative Literature. (S. H. Seyyedi, Trans.). (First Edition). Mashhad, Iran: Behnashr. (2003).
8- Osvar, M.. Until I am grown with love in the romantic poems and prose of Nazar Qobbani. Tehran, Iran: Sokhan. (2003).
9- Pournamdarian, T. Traveling amidst fog: reflection on the poems of Ahmad Shamloo, (First edition). Tehran, Iran: Zemestan. (1995).
10- Qabbani, N. Ghasayed (Twenty-fifth edition). Retrieved from NIZARQ.com. (1981)
11-- -------------. The Complete poetry collection of Nizar Qabbani. (Seven edition). Beirut, Lebanon: Nazar Qabbani publication. (1993).
12--------------. The complete political works of Nazar Qabbani. (Second edition) Beirut, Lebanon: Nazar Qabbani publication. (1999).
13-----------------. La. (Thirteenth edition). Retrieved from NIZARQ.COM. (1999).
14- Saheb Ekhtiari, B. Ahmad Shamloo, the poet of nights and romances. (Second Edition). Tehran, Iran: Hirmand. (2008).
15-Salihi Moghadam, S. & Asgharnejad Farid, M. Themes of social lyric poems in works of Nazar Qobbani and Shamlou. Comparative Literature Studies, 7 (26), 69-89. (2013).
16- Shamloo, A. Ghatnemaeh. (Second Edition). Tehran, Iran: Zamaneh(2000).
17------------------------. Collection of works: poems. (Fourth Edition). Tehran. Iran: Negah
18- ----------------------. Collection of works: second volume, (Ninth Edition). Tehran. Iran: Negah
19- Shroole, Y. Adaptive Literature. (T. Sahedi, Trans.). Tehran, Iran: Amir Kabir. (2007).
20-Tajeddin, A. Nazar Qabbani and political poem. (First edition). Cairo, Egypt: Dar al-Saqafeih. (2000).