استعارۀ شناختی عشق در" کاش حرفی بزنی" از مصطفی رحماندوست ) بر اساس نظریۀ جورج لیکاف و مارک جانسون(

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

2 استاد زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

3 دانشیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

10.22111/jllr.2020.5296

چکیده

     نظریۀ  استعارۀ مفهومی، برای اولین بار در آراء دو زبانشناس معروف، "جورج لیکاف" و" مارک جانسون" مطرح شد. طبق این نظریه، اساسا ذهن انسان برای درک هر مفهوم انتزاعی، به صورت ناخودآگاه و غیر ارادی به شکل استعاری عمل می کند. یکی از مفاهیم انتزاعی که انسان از ابتدای زندگی قادر به درک آن می باشد، مفهوم عشق است. این مقاله  با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی در صدد پاسخگویی به این پرسش است که مفهوم عشق درکتاب"کاش حرفی بزنی" با کدام تجربه های حوزه های مبدأ بیان شده است؟ بنابر تحلیل های انجام شده، شاعر با شناخت صحیح از ویژگی ها و نیازها و تجربیات دورۀ نوجوانی، اقدام به انتخاب حوزه های مفهومی آشنا و قابل درک برای مخاطب خویش نموده است. عشق به خدا، والدین و عشق های انسانی از موضوعات مطرح شده در این اثرند. علاوه بر آن، رحماندوست با گزینش حوزه های مبدأ هستی شاختی مربوط به عناصر طبیعت و همچنین مصنوعات دست بشر با ویژگی های ارتباطی مثبت، عشق را موضوعی آرامش بخش و لطیف معرفی کرده است. شاعر پیام موجود در اثرش را با نشان دادن دو مقولۀ (خیر و شر) در سرشت انسان، و تصویر انسانیِ متناسب با یک استعارۀ کلی پیش روی او نهاده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Cognitive Metaphor of “Love” in "Wish to Speak" by Mustafa Rahmandoust ( Based on the theory of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson )

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Moosavi Sabet 1
  • Maryam khalili jahtigh 2
  • Mohammad Barani 3
1 PhD student of Persian language and literature Dept, University of Sistan and Baluchestan
2 Professor of Persian language and literature Dept, University of Sistan and Baluchestan
3 Associate of Persian language and literature Dept, University of Sistan and Baluchestan
چکیده [English]

 
    
Abstract
   The concept of metaphorical theory was first put forward by the opinions of two famous linguists, George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. According to this theory, the human mind is essentially metaphorically unconscious and involuntary for understanding any abstract concept. One of the abstract concepts that humans can understand from the beginning of life is the concept of love and love. This paper uses a descriptive-analytical method to answer the question of the concept of love in "Wish to say" with which experiences of origin are expressed? In this study, considering the extent to which the adolescent's audience understands the concept of love and affection, the study of "Wish to talk" by Mustafa Rahmandoust and the different areas of origin and how these areas of application are applied to the adolescent audience has been investigated. . According to the analysis, the poet has chosen the conceptual areas familiar and understandable to his audience with a proper understanding of the characteristics and needs and experiences of adolescence. Love for God, parents and human love are some of the topics of love in this work. In addition, Rahmandoust has introduced love as a calming and delicate subject by choosing areas of origin for the elements of nature as well as human artifacts but with positive communication features. The poet puts the message in his work by showing him two categories (good and evil) in human nature, and the human image fits into a general metaphor (man is a coin), and ultimately his ideology in choosing good over evil Has shown the audience the type and frequency of use of the samples.
 

1. Introduction

     In classical language theory, metaphor is a matter of language and its application is to make the word beautiful and imaginative. According to classical linguists, when we use one or more words in a linguistic expression, especially poetry, in a sense other than the conventional one to express a similar meaning, there is a conceptual metaphor. But in contemporary theory, as suggested by Lakoff and Jahnson, metaphor has been found to have a fundamental application in the human cognitive system, in which linguistic and artistic application is one of the manifestations of the imaginary system of the mind. Since childhood as well as adolescence plays an important role in human cognitive development, it is important to use conceptual metaphors for these audiences. This article examines various metaphors with the concept of love and affection for adolescents. (D) and (e) are discussed. So far, the abstract concept of love and affection has not been explored with a critique approach and the effect is appropriate to the age group of children and adolescents. Given the importance of childhood and the need to understand this period of life in understanding various abstract concepts, especially the affective concept of love and affection, the need to address this issue is felt. In adolescence, man approaches the stage of physical maturity and new emotions awaken in him that are open to debate. This issue has appeared in today's children's and adolescent literature, but less has been addressed so far, so the present study has attempted to answer the following questions: Which concept of love would you like to talk about? Experience in areas of origin expressed? How are the cognitive representations of this emotion sensed in the work? How successful is the poet in expressing the adolescent's actual experience of the conceptual metaphor of love?

2. Research methodology

   This study has been carried out in the descriptive-analytical methods with the analysis of metaphorical data in Mustafa Rahmandoust's "Wish to Speak". In this research, while describing the characteristics of the adolescent audience and their understanding and understanding of the phenomena surrounding them, as well as the physical and emotional states of this group of audiences, the various structural, ontological metaphors are divided into two metaphorical and existential metaphors. The metaphors of direction or place in this poem are extracted and analyzed. The areas of origin used in this work and its impact on the audience were examined.
 

3. Discussion

    Love is one of the abstractions that fall under the category of emotions and cannot be described as normal. Adolescents need a proper understanding of themselves as a result of physical and mental changes and conflicts with their various identity and human crises. Love and affection fall into the domain of destination and the affairs with which we know this feeling. Emotions are usually understood through force metaphors. Gravity, magnetic, electricity, mechanical, etc. These forces appear in the material world as waves, winds, storms, fires that are known by various actions. (Kovecses, 2014: 41)
The first category is structural metaphors
By giving examples, the poet has put forward various structural metaphors for the concept of love and affection. Metaphors: sacred, game / competition, road, spring, power and building are the areas of origin in this work.
 The second category is the ontological metaphors
A: There are metaphors. The poet illustrates his understanding of the audience and his experiences with the examples he brings to the objects of human life. Crystalline container, tree, stack, container, window-in, book, bridge, bird's-eye clarity, pigeon, twilight are areas of origin used in this work.
B: Existential metaphors that are usually the same as giving human characteristics to an inanimate creature and recognition in traditional rhetoric. Such as: hesitant and hypocritical, demanding human, anxious human, watch, lover, companion, traveler.
   Humans are two-sided, travelers in the anxious and restless sense, and human beings are examples of negative charge. The poet considers the heart to have two aspects: the negative and the positive. A general metaphor (man is a double coin) is given to illustrate the dual aspect of man. Man has both a heavenly spirit and an earthly being. So the heart can be a place of good and bad traits. Such an image of the human to the adolescent audience will greatly help to alleviate many of his intellectual and mental problems. By examining the frequency of the use of various metaphors in this work, we find that the poet has used good and valuable traits more than bad and negative traits. That reflects his thinking.

4 – Conclusion

     Humans come to a clear understanding of the environment and abstract affairs by metaphor. This way of perception has been active in human since childhood, and the child will be able to understand the world around him at any stage of development, depending on the amount of his life experiences. Age D is the beginning of adolescence, and during this period, one's awareness of self, talents, abilities, as well as surrounding phenomena increases, so it is only natural that his or her mental food should be adapted to cognitive developmental poetry and stories. Be it.
   The poet has used different origins for the notion of love, affection, and what is related (heart, love, lover). In this work, the poet depicts the love of God, his parents and the earthly and sometimes passionate love. In the frequency with which these metaphors are used, the love of God and parents is mentioned once in this book and Other Poems and Poems (11 poems) have all been addressed to other earthly lovers, which is justified by the teenager's correct understanding of adolescence and the desire to establish friendships beyond home and family. In structural and ontological metaphors, the poet uses concepts familiar to the target audience and his or her experiences. What are the elements of nature such as spring, tree, rivulet, bird, wolf, sheep ... and what man-made objects such as windows, bridges, buildings and s.t
   In all the examples mentioned, the poet presents love and affection as a gentle and comforting subject. This message is very important to the audience who is just experiencing love, and that experience may spill all its existence.
  In a general metaphor (human being is a two-sided coin) derived from reading the whole work, the poet brings the heavenly-earth combination of human attributes to the eyes of the audience and selects his ideology by choosing different positively charged concepts to the audience.
 
 
 
 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • conceptual metaphor
  • Love
  • Compassion
  • wish to speak
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