بررسی ارتباط ماه و زن از منظر اساطیری در ویس و رامین

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رشته زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز

2 استادیار رشته زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز

3 استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز

10.22111/jllr.2020.5304

چکیده

موضوعات اساطیری یکی از اساسی ترین و اوّلین موضوعات مطرح شده در ادبیات هستند و در این شکی نیست که ادبیات و اسطوره دو اصل جدانشدنی از یکدیگر می باشند و هر اسطوره، کوشش ساده و ابتدایی تخیل برای این همانی جهان بشری است که اغلب داستانی درباره یک ایزد یا ایزدبانو می باشد. یکی از این ایزدبانوان، ماه است که در اساطیر به صورت الهه سین، سِلین، آرتمیس، دیانا و اناهیتا جلوه گر می شود. این پژوهش برآن است تا اسطوره زن و ماه را که یکی از باورهای بنیادین بشری می باشد، در منظومه ویس و رامین بررسی کند. در این پژوهش هدف، استخراج و تبیین اسطوره ماه و زن و پاسخ دادن به این سؤال است که دلایل همانندی زن و ماه کدامند؟ روش تحقیق، توصیفی- تحلیلی است و درتحلیل نمونه های منظومه، ارتباط آن ها با اساطیر مورد بحث قرار گرفته است. نتایج به دست آمده نشان می دهد که ماه به عنوان الهه آسمانی، مظهر زیبایی و فرّه بخشی به موجودات، خصوصاً زنان، به خاطر مناسباتی که با ماه دارند، می باشد.همچنین این باور، حجم زیادی از تشبیهات منظومه ویس و رامین را به خود اختصاص داده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Examining the relationship between the moon and woman from mythical perspective in Vis and Ramin

نویسندگان [English]

  • masoumeh nazari 1
  • auyob kooshan 2
  • Mahin Masarat 3
1 PhD student of Persian Language and Literature Dept, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch
2 Assistant professor of Persian Language and Literature Dept, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch
3 Assistant professor of Persian Language and Literature Dept, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Mythical subjects are one of the fundamental and first issues in literature. Undoubtedly, literature and myth are inseparable and myth is a simple and primary effort for imagination of the human world that mostly it is a story about a god or goddess. One of the goddess is moon that is represented as Goddess of Sin, Celine, Artemis, Diana and Anahita. This research tries to investigate the myth of woman and moon as one of the human fundamental beliefs in the verse of Vis and Ramin. In this research, the aim was to extract and explain the myth of woman and moon and respond to the question of what is the reason for similarity between woman and moon. The research method was descriptive-analytical which investigated the myth of woman and moon. According to the findings it can be referred to the moon as the heavenly goddess that embodies the beauty and beautification of the creatures, particularly women who have relationships with moon. On the other hand, this belief has been assigned significant number of similes in the verse of Vis and Ramin.
 
 
 
1-Introduction
In the belief of primitive humans, stones, plants, animals and celestial bodies (moon, sun, and other stars) had spirits, and there were gods and goddess beyond them. The humans visualized heavenly gods as stars. The primitive man imagined the gods as men and women from very beginning. Accordingly, the sun and the moon are no optional in this rule. The sun shines directly. Therefore, one principle is active and the other is passive. The sun is the manifestation of male power and the moon is the manifestation of the female power, and the moon is considered as the maternal goddess and source of power of life.
On the other hand, the moon always provokes the sensation of beauty, and the beautiful face people are resembled to the moon. Wherever it is spoken about beautiful faces, the moon is represented and the lovers actually observe their beloved faces in the moon. The woman’s similarity to the moon is one of the common themes of literature that can lead us to think about the reasons for this similarity. When the moon is considered as the manifestation of beauty, what is the logic behind this similarity; although the moon has a smudge and, contrary to popular imagination, may not be too beautiful? So what is the relationship between the moon and the woman, and sometimes even the existence of human? Does this human imagination about the moon have any mythological aspect in its ancient belief? Why are all the beauties in the literary texts and especially in lyrics resembled moon? Considering that this issue is applicable in the literature of different nations, it is necessary to find out the reason for this similarity. In this article, the expansion of the relationship between the moon and the woman is discussed, and the evidence has been obtained from a noble Persian lyric known as Weis and Ramin.
 
2- Research Methodology
The research method in this research is descriptive-analytic. In this regard, at first, the myths of woman and the moon and their relationship with each other are examined and then analyzed by the samples in the verse of Weiss and Ramin and their relationship with mythological issues.
 
3-Discussion
The moon, as the source of power and rejuvenation, creates all the bodies and living beings. This issue connects the woman to the moon in the unconscious of the nations, and on this basis, the moon is known as the mother goddess. Mother-goddesses are always related to the moon, and all goddesses were the goddesses of the moon. In the mythology of the world, the moon goddesses have been a symbol of beauty. Astronomers have considered attributes for the moon and light. "Buti, a well-known divine comedian interpreter, quotes from Arab astronomer Al-Mabsar that: The moon is cold, humid, and mysterious planet that sometimes, creates warmth and exhilaration and readiness to work, and sometimes makes sense of purity and need to pray. It always provokes the sense of beauty and friendship, but it also stimulates the magic talent, metaphysics, explorations of the earth and the sea. In a sentimental way, it is a special star of noble women and blessing marriage (Alligier 2010: 1155).
In Avesta, the moon is the brightest part of the grateful creatures. In the Mahyasht, it is spoken about the brightness of the moon and pointed out that “Amshaspandan rises and provides that blessing entity and spread on the ground life” (Dosutkhah, vol.1, 1996:326).
In Bundehehsh, it is written that the moon grants the creatures light and luminosity. “The moon offers light, happiness and power in three states early moon, crescent moon and full moon”(Samadi, 2004: 100)
  On this basis, it can be said that the brightness and beauty of the beautiful faces is originated from the moon. As it is said in a part of Bundehesh that “Amhaspand Imardad has likened the beautiful faces to the moon” (Afifi, 2004: 619).
In folk beliefs, the moon is not only the donor of beauty for the beautiful people but also grants flowers colors and according to this belief, the Persian poets have called the moon the decorator of the flowers” (Mosafa, 1987: 696).
“In Persian literature, the moon is mostly a manifestation of beauty and a great example of dignity and perfection. It is related to these concepts that metaphors and various combinations of the fantasy have been created by Iranian poets, and especially the beauty of women has become liken the moon.”(Yahaghi, 1990: 385)
 
 
4- Conclusion
The moon, as the benchmark of world rhythms and the source of power and rejuvenation, creates all the bodies and living beings. This issue connects the woman to the moon in the unconscious of the nations, and on this basis, the moon is known as the sky goddess and manifestation of the female power.
In the mythology of the world, the goddesses of the moon have been the symbol of beauty and attribute this beauty to the moonlight and its properties. In Avesta, the moon is the brightest part and donor of gratefulness to the creatures. In Mahyasht, it was spoken about luminosity of moon and pointed out that Amshaspandan rises and provides that blessing entity and spread on the ground life. On this basis, it can be said that the brightness and beauty of the beautiful faces is originated from the moon.
According to these issues, the poet has portrayed the relationship between the moon and the woman beautifully, and, given the large volume of these similes, it can be considered as one of the features of the Weiss and Ramin poems. In addition, in general, the mythological relationship between the moon and the woman can be mentioned as a result; however, the secondary results of this research are as follows:
1- In this verse, 190 couplets points to the evidence referring to the relationship between the woman and the woman.
2. Weis who becomes the beloved of Viro, Shah Mobad and Ramin has a stunning beauty and in 156 couplets, the beauty of Weis and her relationship with the moon have been mentioned and only in 34 couplets, it has been pointed to the moon and other beautiful people.
3- Because of being beautiful, Weis has been likened to the moon and the sun in seven couplets.
4- Men are also likened to the sun, which 23 couplets are devoted to this issue, two of which point to the Shah Mobad, one refers to Viro and three couplets point to Jamshid (Ramin son) and the rest refer to Ramin.
It is worth noting that the relationship between the moon and the woman is still present in the life of the people, and every beautiful creature is resembled to the moon, and this issue points the continuity of mythology with human life, and human beings have had myths related to their culture throughout the history. This brief piece of writing can be a valuable alternative to research on the reflections on many mythological issues.
 
 
References
1-    Alligier, D. (2010). Comedy Elahi, translated by Shojaeddin Shafa, Tehran. Amir Kabir publication
2-    Aasad Gorgani, F.( 1958). Vis va  Ramin, corrected by Mohammad jafar Mahjoub, Tehran, Nashre Andisheh publication.
3-    Schmidt, J.( 2004). Farhangh asatir Yoonan va Rom, translated by Shahla Baradaran, 1st edition, Farhange Moaser publication.
4-    Eliadeh, M. (1993), Resale dar tharikh adyan, translated by Jalal Sattari, Tehran, Soroush publication.
5-    Barani, M. Ehsan Khani, S. (2013). Comparative study of water myth in the mythology of Iran and India, Quarterly Studies in Subcontinent, Year 5, No. 17, pp.7-26, Sistan Baluchestan University: Fall and Winter
6-    Bahar, M.(2002). Pajuheshi dar asatire Iran, 4th edition, Tehran, Agah publication.
7-    Bironi Abureyhan, M.( 1983). Attafhim Leavael Sanat Tanijim, corrected by Jalaleddin Homaei, Tehran, Babak publication.
8-    Khodadadian, A. (2001). Ashkanian (Partiyan), first edition, TehranBehdid publication.
9-    Dadeghi, F.(2001). Bundehesh, translated by Mehrdad Bahar, Tehran, Tus.
10- Dadvar, A., Mansouri, E. (2006).Daramadi bar ostoreha va nemadhaei Iran va Hend dar ahdeh bastan, first edition, Tehran: Publication of Al-Zahra University.
11- Durant,W.(1997). Tharikh Tamadon, vol. 1, translated by Ahmad Aram, 5th edition, Tehran, Academic and cultural Publication.
12- Doustkhah, J.(1996).Avesta, Kohantarin sorudha va matnhaye Irani,vol. 1,2, 3rd edition, Morvarid publication.
13- Dehkhoda, A.(1993). Logatnameh Dehkhoda, Tehran University Publication Institute.
14- Rashed Mohassel, M., Hajipoor, F. (2008). Khaghani poem and manifestation of the sun mythology, Journal of Lyrical Literature, vol 6, No. 11, pp.67-86, Sistan and Baluchestan University: Fall and Winter.
15- Zarrinkob, A.(2003). Az Koocheh Rendan, 10th edition, Amir Kabir publication.
16- Chevalier, J., Gerberan, A.(2003). Farhang nomadha, , Vol. 1 & 2, translated by Sudabeh Fazaeli, Tehran, Jeyhun publication.
17- Chevalier, J., Gerberan, A. (2006). Farhang nomadha, Vol. 3 & 4, translated by Sudabeh Fazaeli, Tehran, Jeyhun publication.
18- Samadi, M.( 2004).  Maah dar Iran (from ancient period to advent of Islam), 2nd edition, Scientific and Cultural publication.
19- Afifi, R.(1995). Asatir va farhang Iran dar neveshtwhaye Pahlavi, 1st edition, Tehran, Tus publication.
20- Campbell, J.(1998). Godrat ostureh, translated by Abbass Mokhber, 1st edition, Tehran, Markaz publication.
21- Cooper, J.C.(2013). Farhang namadhaye aiini, translated by Rogayeh Behzadi, 1st edition, Scientific and Cultural publication. 
22- Grant, M., Hazel. ,J. (2005). Farhang asatir klassic (Yoonan va Rome), translated by Reza Rezaei, 1st edition, Tehran, Mahi publication.
23- Mosafa, A.(1987). Farhang estelahate nojumi, Tehran, Cultural Research Publication.
24- Yahaggi, M., (1990). Farhang asatir va esharat dastani dar adabiiat Farsi, Tehran, 1st edition, Soroush publication.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • myths
  • moon
  • beauty
  • woman
  • Vis and Ramin
منابع

۱-آلیگیری، دانته، کمدی الهی، ترجمه شجاع الدین شفا، تهران: نشر امیرکبیر، 1389.

۲-اسعد گرگانی، فخرالدین، ویس و رامین، تصحیح محمدجعفر محجوب، تهران: بنگاه نشر اندیشه، 1337.

۳-اشمیت، ژوئل، فرهنگ اساطیر یونان و روم، چاپ اوّل،ترجمه شهلا برادران، تهران: نشر فرهنگ معاصر، 1383.

۴-الیاده، میرچا، رساله در تاریخ ادیان، ترجمه جلال ستاری، تهران: نشر سروش، 1372.

۵-بارانی، محمد. احسان خانی سومار، بررسی تطبیقی اسطوره آب در اساطیر ایران و هند، فصلنامه مطالعات شبه قارّه، سال پنجم، شماره هفدهم، صص 26- 7، دانشگاه سیستان بلوچستان: پاییز و زمستان 1392.

۶-بهار، مهرداد، پژوهشی در اساطیر ایران، چاپ چهارم، تهران: نشر آگاه، 1381.

۷-بیرونی، ابوریحان محمد، التفهیم لاوائل صناعة التنجیم، تعلیقات جلال الدین همایی، تهران: نشر بابک، 1362.

۸-خدادادیان، اردشیر، اشکانیان،چاپ اوّل، تهران: نشر به دید، 1380.

۹-دادگی، فرنبغ، بندهش، ترجمه مهرداد بهار، تهران: توس، 1380.

۱۰-دادور، ابوالقاسم. الهام، منصوری، درآمدی بر اسطوره ها و نمادهای ایران و هند در عهد باستان، چاپ اوّل، تهران: نشر دانشگاه الزهرا، 1385.

۱۱-دورانت، ویل، تاریخ تمدن، جلد اوّل، چاپ پنجم، ترجه احمد آرام، تهران: نشر علمی و فرهنگی، 1376.

۱۲-دوستخواه، جلیل، اوستا کهن ترین سرودها و متن های ایرانی، جلد اوّل و دوم، چاپ سوم، تهران:  نشر مروارید، 1375.

۱۳-دهخدا، علی اکبر ، لغتنامهدهخدا، تهران، موسسه انتشارات و چاپ دانشگاه تهران، 1372.

۱۴-راشد محصّل، محمد رضا. فهیمه حاجی پور، شعر خاقانی و جلوه اسطوره خورشید در آن، پژوهشنامه ادب غنایی، سال ششم، شماره یازدهم، صص 86- 67، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان: پاییز و زمستان 1387.

۱۵-زرین کوب، عبدالحسین، از کوچه رندان، چاپ دهم، تهران: نشر امیرکبیر، 1382.

۱۶-شوالیه، ژان. آلن، گربران، فرهنگ نمادها، جلد اوّل و دوم، ترجمه سودابه فضایلی، تهران: نشر جیحون، 1378.

۱۷-شوالیه، ژان. آلن، گربران، فرهنگ نمادها، جلد سوم و چهارم، ترجمه سودابه فضایلی، تهران: نشر جیحون، 1382.

۱۸-صمدی، مهرانگیز، ماه در ایران (از قدیمی ترین ایام تا ظهور اسلام)،چاپ دوم، تهران: نشر علمی و فرهنگی، 1383.

۱۹-عفیفی، رحیم، اساطیر و فرهنگ ایران در نوشته های پهلوی، چاپ اول، تهران: نشر توس، 1374.

۲۰-کمبل، جوزف، قدرت اسطوره، چاپ اوّل، ترجمه عباس مخبر، تهران: نشر مرکز، 1377.

۲۱-کوپر، جی سی، فرهنگ نمادهای آیینی، چاپ اوّل، ترجمه رقیه بهزادی، تهران: نشر علمی، 1392.

۲۲-گرانت، مایکل. جان، هیزل، فرهنگ اساطیر کلاسیک (یونان و روم)، چاپ اوّل، ترجمه رضا رضایی، تهران: نشر ماهی، 1384.

۲۳-مصفی، ابوالفضل، فرهنگ اصطلاحات نجومی، تهران: نشر مطالعات و تحقیقات فرهنگی، 1366.

۲۴-یاحقی، محمدجعفر، فرهنگ اساطیر و اشارات داستانی در ادبیات فارسی، چاپ اول، تهران: نشر سروش، 1369.