تحلیل« رویکرد روشنفکری» در اشعار ناصرخسرو قبادیانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران جنوب

2 دانشیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی ، پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی

10.22111/jllr.2020.5305

چکیده

این مقاله با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه­ای به تبیین مؤلفه­های  جنبش خردگرای ایرانی-شعوبیه- و مفهوم روشنفکری می­پردازد و در پی پاسخ به این پرسش­هاست: رویکرد روشنفکری ناصرخسرو چگونه صورت­بندی می­شود و اندیشه­های او در دیوان قصاید تا چه اندازه با جنبش فکری شعوبیه نزدیک است؟ و شیوه ایفای نقش روشنفکری ناصرخسرو در زمینه­ی تاریخ سیاسی – اجتماعی ایران آن روزگار چگونه است؟ رویکرد روشنفکری ناصرخسرو در دو بحثِ نظری و نقش عمل­گرایانه­ی روشنفکری قابل تحلیل است. ژرف­ساخت روشنفکری در آراء ناصرخسرو بر مینای اندیشه­ی خردگرایانه­ی ایرانی شکل می­گیرد و بر همین اساس در دفاع از حقوق و مقام انسان، معتقد به آزادی اراده، خردگرایی، تکریم مقام انسان و فردیت است. ناصرخسرو  برای برون رفت از وضعیت نامطلوب روزگارش، اندیشه­های روشنگرش را طرح می­کند. مهمترین نقش­های روشنفکری ناصرخسرو در سه ساحت سیاسی-اقتصادی، فرهنگی و دینی در تقابل با قدرت سیاسی سلاطین سلجوقی و دستگاه عقیدتی خلفای بغداد، قابل تحلیل است. او تلاش می­کند با یادآوری داشته­های فرهنگی و تلاش برای بازگشت به خویشتن به احیای هویت ­بپردازد. موانع از دیگر نقش­های روشنفکری او نقد موانع آزادی، نواندیشی دینی، اعتراض به سلطه­ی سیاسی سلجوقی و حاکمیت عقیدتی خلافت عباسی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

"Intellectual Approach" in the poems of Naser Khosrow Ghobadiyani

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza hadian 1
  • farzad abdolhosain 2
1 Ph.D Student of Persian Language and Literature Dept, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran
2 Professor of Persian Language and Literature Dept, Research Center of Human Sciencesand cultural studies
چکیده [English]

Abstract
   This article, by means of descriptive-analytical method, uses the library resources to explain the rationalist movement of Iran-Sheubiyh-and the concept of intellectuals. This article answers these questions: How does Nasser Khosrow's intellect develop? How close is his idea to the intellectual movement of Sheubi? What is Nasser Khosrow's intellectual role in Iran's political-social history in that era? Nasser Khosrow's intellectual approach is in two theoretical discussions and the pragmatic role of analysis. Naser Khosrow's intellectual role blends with Iran's rationalist thought. In defense of human rights, he believes in freedom of will, rationalism, reverence for humanity and individuality. Nasir Khosrow, in order to get out of his unfavorable state of affairs, sets out his illuminating thoughts.Naser Khosrow's intellectual role shape in three dimensions: political-economic, cultural, and religious, in opposition to the political power of the Saljugh Sultans and the Caliphate's ideological system in Baghdad. He strives to revive his identity by recalling cultural and endeavors to return to his own self. Criticizes the obstacles to the realization of freedom. Among his other roles is the protest against Saljugh's political dominance and the rule of law of Abbasid caliphate and religious renaissance
 
 
 
1-     Introduction
Nasser Khosrow is an Iranian intellectual poet who has coincided with the era of domination of the non-Iranian Saljugh political System and the sovereignty of the Abbasi caliphs in Baghdad. He understood the social and political situation of his day and always aimed at expounding his illuminating ideas in order to get out of this unfavorable situation. "Sheubiyh had two main branches in Iran, which lasted for centuries in our literature and poetry. The first branch was in the field of mysticism and mysticism. the second branch was the branch of rationality based on knowledge. "(Farzad, 175: 1384)
 In rationalism, poets such as Kasai, Ferdowsi, Naser Khosrow, and Khayyam etc. with rationality, attention to pre-Islamic Iranian wisdom, respect for human freedom and the determinism of modernity, have new ideas in the history of thinking - with influence from the plot - to reject the oppressors. Naser Khosrow Ghobadiyani, with an inclination towards the Ismaili religion of the religions of the opposition to the official religion, "in the late 11th century, the Iranian humanistic rationality (Shiei) was merged with a kind of realism and initiated the first social and political critique in our literature." (Ib: 178)
Hence, this article seeks to answer these questions: What is the formulation of the persistent and profound intellectual creation in the intellectual system of Naser Khosrow Ghobadiyani? To what extent does it have an intellectual dimension and how does it play an intellectual role?
This article tries to understand Nasser Khosro's enlightening views on the political-social history of Iran during the era of Saljugh rulers and Abbasi caliphs and to evaluate his political, social and religious orientations by analyzing the intellectual approach. By analyzing Naser Khosrow's poems based on the elements of the intellectual rationalist movement in Iran and other historical backgrounds in Iran and the Islamic world, a new dimension of Naser Khosrow's views and thoughts is examined. The reaction of this Iranian poet to the decline of human rights and values ​​ determined by the policies of non-Iranian Saljugh rulers and the caliphate of Baghdad. In this case, we will get a different look at Nasser Khosrow's social-political views.
 
2-     Research methodology
The research method is analytical-explanatory and is done by analyzing the evidence inline text. This research, by explaining the socio-political history of Iran, especially the Iranian Sheubiyh movement and the intellectual role, analyzes the views of Naser Khosrow Ghobadiyani in the poetry court.
 
 
3-     Discussion
Historical background and community needs vary from society to society, and attitudes are evolving. Intellectual features of the intellectuals can vary from time to time or from place to place. Nasser Khosrow understands his day and criticizes politics, society and culture, which is a criterion of wisdom.  For example, he offers a picture of Islam that is supposed to be superstition and any kind of imitation. On the other hand, in order to escape from the status quo created by the caliphate and the rule of the Saljugh System, it seeks to revive the Iranian identity and seeks to make Iran aware of its culture and heritage. Therefore, the intellectual role of Naser Khorsrow forms in protest against the Saljugh political rule and the religious system of the caliphate and the revival of Iranian identity and freedom. 
This is the role of Nasser Khorsro in two branches, an attempt at economic justice and an escape from intellectual repression in confronting the power of the Saljugh System and the caliphate of Baghdad.
 A common identity is like a guardian that will remove public interest from any power, and aspire to the material and spiritual communities for all the people of society.
The emphasis on knowledge, antiquity, and remembrance of the historical background and ethnicity of Iran is Nasser Khosro's most enlightening efforts to revive Iran's identity and freedom. Nasser Khosrow, with a new and new interpretation of the value and cultural system, will open the way to dangers such as heresy, because the dominant and prevailing norms, by building domination on thought, lead the person to follow, obey and secure the goals of the owners of power. Nasser Khosro himself thinks that he must stand against the causes of the norms of the crookedness and, through superstition and disintegration, try to solve the obstacles and realize the ideal conditions. The intellectual role of Naser Khorsrow is the defense of the trampled people's rights and protest against the authorities.
.
 
4-     Conclusion
Naser Khosrow's time is the time of the political rule of the Saljughs of non-Iran and the domination of the Abbasi caliphs over Iran, a time when cultural structures and value systems, especially the Iranian identity from the second to the Naser-Khosrow era, were at risk of the destruction of non-Iranian political and ideological sovereignty. His intellectual thought and approach are responses to the political and ideological sovereignty of foreigners and their ideological rigors.
The intellectual and literary attitude of the Iranian rationalist Sheubiyh will continue to struggle with the thoughts and literature to defend freedom and dignity of man in the confrontation between political sovereignty and deviant thinking.
He tries to reproduce the noble meanings of these concepts. The deepening of Nasser Khosrow's thoughts with the rationalist movement of Iran-Sheubi-is in line with Iranian history.
The basis of his intellectual approach is that he focuses on wisdom recognition to protect human beings and always guides people in order to properly diagnose from falsehood and avoid slipping. Of the other deep-seated structures, it is about freedom and liberty to be at the mercy of power. In his view, man must be free to perform verbs. Human beings are at the core of Naser Khosrow's pure minds, and even human beings are a divine being. Human primacy in virtues, adoration of art and spirituality, individual abilities of man.
Another aspect of Nasser Khosrow's approach to intellectualism is his pragmatic role that condemns the religious repressions and economic inequalities of the Abbasi caliphs and the Saljugh System in defense of the rights of the people and considers the caliphate of the Abbasi caliph illegitimate.
Another role of Naser Khosro's intellectuals is the discovery of value systems and the diversion of values ​​from the natural structure; he confronts religious authority against the causes of the tangled norms and weakens the questioning of the false intellectual foundations.
He considers unconscious faithless worthless and man's destruction. Insists on the clarification of religious issues. Nasser Khosrow wants to realize the libertarian and identity-based idea in two areas of cultural revival and political independence. His political ideology has manifested itself with the Saljugh and Caliphate domination of Baghdad. In the field of culture, with cultural reminders and an effort to return to one's own self, it seeks to revive the identity and freedom of Iranians.
 
 
Reference
 
1-     Ahmadi, Babak; Kare roshanfekri; Second edition, Tehran: Markaz, 2008.
2-     Akhlagh, Hasan; Sonat-e- roshangari dar Islam v Gharb; First edition, Tehran: Amir Kabir, 2009.
3-     Islami Nodoshan, Mohammad Ali (1976); Payvand-e- shear v fekr nazd-e-Naser Khosrow; In the Collection of Articles of Naser Khosrow's Memoirs; Ferdowsi University Press, Mashhad (Faculty of Literature and Humanities), pp. 31-59.
4-     Peguloskaia, N and others; Tarikh –e- Iran az doran-e-bastan ta payan saday-e-hijdahom; translation of Karim Keshavarz;fourth edition; Tehran: Payam Publication, 1975.
5-     Halabi, Ali Asghar; Tarikh-e-falsaf-e- dar Iran v jahan- e- Islam; Second Edition; Tehran: Asatir Publication, 2007.
6-     Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar, Loghaynameh, University of Tehran: Dehkhoda Institute, 1958.
7-     Ravandi, Morteza; Tarikh-e-ejtemaei Iran, V. 2 (Hokomatha v selselehaye Iran az hamlay-e-Aarab ta esteghrar-e-mashrotiat); Third Edition, Tehran: Amir Kabir Publication, 1977.
8-     Sartre, Jean Paul, Dar defa az roshnfekean; translation by Reza Hosseini; second edition, Tehran: Niloofar, 2006.
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Intellect
  • Sheubiyh
  • Naser Khosrow
  • Collection of Poems
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