عنوان مقاله [English]
Kalim Kashani follows Iraqi-style ghazals, in some respects. This study, written with the purpose to understand the similarity between the Hindi and Iraqi-style ghazals, based on the assumption that the Hindi-style sonneteers follow Iraqi style and in this respect, on the horizontal and vertical-axis, tendency to this style is evident in the Hindi sonnets, attempts to analyze, through descriptive–analytical method, the Kalim's genre based on Gérard Genette's Architextuality Theory. To this end, with regard to the importance of typology of Hindi -style sonnets, this issue studies in two sections: single and multi-content sonnets. The result shows contrary to popular perception not all Hindi-style are multi-content; so that in Kalim's, many single-content sonnets are seen, among which romantic sonnets are frequent. Many of multi-content sonnets have a romantic framework, that sometimes non-romantic distichs of which could be interpreted by romantic arrangements. In terms of typology, all sonnets have an architextual relationship with Iraqi and Khorasani-styles. The only distinct species in Kalim's is a kind of boasting-complaint, is parody of the boasting odes about past styles. This type, which is the outcome of hypertextual changes, shows off on the vertical-axis in the single-content sonnets and on the horizontal-axis in multi-content ghazals.
Kallim Kashani is one of the most venerated poets of the Hindi style of poetry. His poem embraces the distinctive features of this style which shares some features with Iraqi and Khorrassani styles, most specifically the literary genre. The main form of the Hindi style is Ghazal. Although there are obvious distinctions among these styles, the composing method of Ghazal does not change from two perspectives in the Iraqi style and the Hindi style: the vertical axis and the content of the work. Therefore, we can say that the Hindi style poets use the Iraqi style as their standard pattern in their ghazals.
Now, if we study Ghazals of Kalim Kashani as an example of Hindi style, these questions arise:
1. From the architextual perspective , What classes of poetry can I place?
2. Which genre is more connected with kalim's Ghazal?
Literary scholars have not paid attention to the style of Hindi style ghazal from the genre point of view, and have focused on finding stylistic forms in Indian style using traditional methods in research, or in the application of new theories, they have gathered formal examples of intertextual relations such as motifs and allusions.The aim of this article is to identify similarities in the Hindi and Iraqi Ghazals.
1-2- Research methodology
Assuming that the Ghazals in the Hindi style use the Iraqi style as their standard pattern, these poets have adopted a remarkably robust attitude towards the Iraqi style horizontally and vertically.
We studied the literary genre in Kallim’s Gahazals based on Gérard Genette's architextuality theory in a descriptive-analytic arrangement. The Architextuality is part of the theory of Transtextuality. Genet considers the Transtextuality to be more general than intertextuality, and it includes five types of: Intertextuality, Paratextuality, Metatextuality, Hypertextuality, and Architextuality (Genett, 1997:p. 1-5). Genette used this name to describe longitudinal relationships between a text and its literary genre - in other words, naming it as a part of the literary genre. From the perspective of the genette, the Architextuality refers to the fact that a text wants to introduce itself in its title directly or indirectly as poetry, essay, novel or film ( ibid: p.4). In fact, it relates to the designation of a text as part of a genre or genres. Each literary work has always been associated with a particular genre, and this fact has been present at all times. There have been many changes in genres over time. These changes have led to their transmutation at times. Genres are categorized into lyrical, epical, and pedagogic ones. There are also subcategories. Genette says the genre and mode are different. Some genres and sub-genres have transformed to modes over time. Some moods come from literary genres includes epic and lyrical. Some are not derived from literary genres and templates, and they are not in the same form, but rather themes that appears more in the field of discourse and literary speech. Includes mystical, pedagogic, humorous, satiric, threnodic, and funny (Ghasemipour, 2010: 84-85 ). This group is one of the most numerous forms of Persian literature. Genres are seen as modes in the Hindi style. Bearing in mind the importance of mode in the Hindi style, we analyzed the general variety of Persian modes in Kallim’s Ghazals as the typical of this style.To do this, all the verses of the Ghazals were analyzed and the content relationship between the verses was measured. The study was conducted in two parts: single-content Ghazals and multi-content Ghazals.
The result of this study suggests that, unlike the common knowledge, the Ghazals in the Hindi style are not multi-content, and that there are many single-content Ghazals in Kallim’s poem, predominantly romantic ones.The single-content Ghazal that depicted the lyric genre and in the previous styles was a romantic or mystical subgenres, in the Hindi style is the showplace of moods, in the romantic style ,its Architext is the romantic Ghazal of Khorasani style, and in the mystical mode is the Iraqi style Ghazal; in other words, the same appearances that are seen in the Ghazal of Khorasani style and the mysterious Ghazal of Iraqi style are also evident in the style of Hindi Ghazal. Other than the two romantic and mystical modes, other features are also seen in the Ghazal: eulogistic, ratha, complaining, ghalandari . Among these few moods, the romantic mood is more frequent in the single-content Ghazal. Many multi-content Ghazals also contain romantic themes. Some non-romantic multi-content Ghazals can even be interpreted as romantic arrangements. Multi-content Ghazals comprise various modes, including romantic, mystical, pedagogic, complaining, ghalandari, descriptive, eulogistic, critical, and boasting which are combined dually, triply or quadruply. The Combinability of the romantic mode in Kallime’s poem is greater than the other ones.The eulogistic mode, though not used in many ghazals, is diverse in terms of the type of composition with other moods. From the genre's point of view, all the Ghazals with the style of Iraq and Khorasani have an Architextual relationship. All his Ghazals indicated an architextual relation with the styles of Iraqi and Khorrassani typologically, except for one kind of boasting complaining genre which was the parody of the most popular styles of the past. in these Ghazals the poet boast about the unreasonable things and, therefore, can be called humorous and the poet's tune is such that the complaining is confused with the boasting; that is, where he should cry, he Laughs and where he should cry, he Boasts. Hence, the result is this kind of blend with exaggeration and paradox. These kinds of Ghazals can be considered parodial examples. As this genre is the result of Hypertextuality changes, it manifests itself vertically in single-content Ghazals and horizontally in multi-content Ghazals