عنوان مقاله [English]
Elegy includes the poet's painful emotions. Poet's overwhelming, internal pain due to the loss of loved ones or because of social disasters, decline of values, etc. appears in the form of elegy and it can be mentioned that elegies have a special positions in lyrical literature. Al-Mutanabbi is one of the greatest Arab poets who has written significant elegies in different situations of his personal and social life and expressed his sorrow over the calamities of the world or loss of loved ones in a tragic way. Regarding his elegies, these questions will be raised that: how compatible is the truth of emotion with sorrowful words of the poet? And which factors were involved in making the strengths and weaknesses of the poet's elegies? In this study, it has been attempted to answer the questions through considering Mutanabbi's elegies, thoughts and purposes in writing them, statistically, using the descriptive-analytical method. The results demonstrate that there are true emotions in his elegies over the loss of his loved ones, yet, when it comes to duty and work, the aim was gaining the consent of the praised one and truth of the emotion is inconspicuous.
Key Words: Mutanabbi, elegy, the element of emotion, truth or untruth
Ahmad bin Hussein Jafi (Al-Mutanabbi) was born in 933 AD in Koofeh. After finding the signs of ingenuity in him, his father sent him to one of the schools of Alavis there. It was in this school that he was introduced to Shiite teachings. According to Ibn Rashigh, he was given the title Al-Mutanabbi because of his poetic ingenuity and wit, and Ibn Jenni believes that it was because of his claim to be on the same level with the prophets (Zaif, 1960: 303). A lot of poets have been after earning money and wealth by writing eulogies, but Al-Mutanabbi thought higher than that. Wealth did not satisfy him and he was not ready to belittle himself. Although he was trying to get closer to kings and the elders in order to achieve his goals, he never gave way to humiliation. Evidence for this claim is the fact that when he went to Antakya, he was introduced by Abul-Ashaer Ibn Hamdani, ruler of that country, to Amir Seif-ud-Doleh, king of Halab and one of the most famous kings of the mid-fourth century. Al-Mutanabbi put some conditions to read the eulogy for Seif-ud-Doleh. One of them was that unlike all other poets, he did not want to stand before the king while reading the eulogy, but he wanted to sit before the king, and the second was that he wanted not to kiss the ground before the king. The king accepted his conditions. This shows the poet’s self-esteem (Manuchehrian, 2009: 33). Among the literary centers of those days, except for Andalusia, the center of Halab, which was under the rule of the Arab Shiite race of Hamdanian, was the most famous among all other centers. In the court of Seif-ud-Doleh (333-357), the great Amir of that country, the most famous figures of literature and elites had come together (Azarnoush, 2011: 128), and while every eulogy-writing poet desired to attend the court of Seif-ud-Doleh, the ambitious Al-Mutanabbi puts the above conditions for his attendance before the king. It is this very high self-esteem that keeps him away from elegy so much so that he did not write elegies even for his parents. Nevertheless, studying his elegies will be helpful to introduce his ideas more clearly. “Fifteen odes could be found in Al-Mutanabbi’s Divan with the technique of elegy which is mostly without emotions. The poet has written half of these elegies for Aale Hamdan and the other half has been written for his grandmother (mother’s mother), Abu Shoja Fatak,…” (Rezaee, 2002: 107-121). This survey tries to answer the following questions:
- How much is the truthfulness of emotions applies to the sympathetic lines of Mutanabbi’s poems?
- What are the reasons for weakness and strength of emotions in the elegies of the poet?
In this study, five elegies of Al-Mutanabbi which are more relevant to the study topic are selected out of his poems, studied and analyzed in the library study method. Considering the required attention and sufficient accuracy of the translation of Al-Mutanabbi’s Divan by Alireza Manuchehrian, the translated lines of this copy into Persian have been used.
Al-Mutanabbi’s elegies are different according to the ranks as well as social and political positions of the people they have been written for, and also they differ according to the effects they have on their personal and material lives. Certainly, the poet’s type of emotions was totally different on the death of Yamak, Seif-ud-Doleh’s servant compared to the death of Khowleh, the king’s older sister, considering the fact that she had special affection and respect for the poet. Al-Mutanabbi has written some elegies such as the elegy for Yamak, the Turk servant of Seif-ud-Doleh only to win the attention of the king, and there is no sign of poet’s sorrow for the late servant; but in some other elegies, like the elegy for his own grandmother or the one for Khowleh, Sef-ud-Doleh’s sister, because of his emotional reliance on them, his expressions have different types of sorrow in these elegies. In order to explain the issues better and analyze the elements of emotion and measuring truthfulness or falsehood of the elegies, we study the lines of elegies in 5 categories namely “elegy for eulogy”, “Elegy for winning the attention of the person (without appraisal)”, “elegy for expression of wisdom and advice”, “elegy for the sake of elegy”, “eulogy of the late person for elegy”.
Al-Mutanabbi has written elegies whose expressed concepts are different based on the person of the late individual. For better elaboration, these concepts are evaluated in 5 parts and the following general results were achieved:
The truthful words of the poet in part “elegy for the sake of elegy”, by considering the whole ode and also the emotional relationship of the poet with the late person, appraising the late person for the sake of elegy, is identifiable and researchable. In these five elegies, Al-Mutanabbi has written elegies wholeheartedly and with deep sorrow only for the death of his beloved ones and friends (grandmother, Khowleh, Tannoikhi) and has revealed his honesty of emotion, especially in the elegy for his grandmother. Singular first person verbs, the percentage of the elegiac lines, meter and music of the poem are all testimonies to this claim. However, in two other elegies (elegy for Yamak servant of Seif-ud-Doleh and elegy for Ezz-ud-Doleh’s aunt) his work has had duty or work attitude and the odes have been written for satisfaction and attracting the attention of the ones for whose satisfaction he had written the elegies. The achieved percentages especially in part “elegy for eulogy” and “elegy for elegy” approve this fact.
Generally, it can be said that Al-Mutanabbi is an ambitious poet. When an elegy is a tool for him to reach his goals, it lacks true emotions and is full of appraisal, wisdom, advice and fake emotions. However, when his emotional relationship with the late person is deep, his honesty of emotion and feelings is obviously observable; so much so that he even applies meter and poetic music to represent his painful emotions.