عنوان مقاله [English]
Halliday`s functionalism has a cognitive approach about meanings, concepts and experiences, and expresses how experiences of human beings through transitivity system are acquired and represented. The goal of the present survey is to discover the world of experiences and life of Saadi in his sonnets and the hypothesis is that the extent of their objectivity and subjectivity can be identified through the processes of ideational role. The necessity of conducting this research is because of the recognizing and determining types of verb in Sa'di's sonnets, regarding their role and meaning. The corpus consists of 9055 verbs which has been chosen based on systematic sampling. The findings indicate that the percentage of major processes including material, mental and relational processes are 23%, 11% and 23%, respectively, and minor processes e.g. behavioral, verbal and existential ones consist of 27%, 11% and 5%, respectively. Also, attributive and identity-related processes in Sa'di's sonnets include 87% to 13%, respectively. It can be inferred that the behaviors, actions, and movements have received more attention. The high percentage of descriptive attributes demonstrates that abstract relationships have mostly been simple attributive and the identity-creation has been rarely noticed.
Key Words: experience, function, material, relational, mental, attributive, identity creation.
Discovery of mental patterns, tenets, and paradigms, the conceptive and semantic system of language, and the process of lingualizing phenomena is one of the important goals of cognitive and role-oriented linguistics. Therefore, a reflection of the nature of mental meanings and concepts, and the social context of the culture where concepts, subjects, and institutions have formed, have been considered from the philosophical as well as linguistic perspectives. In this regard, Halliday’s systematic functional grammar has a systematic pattern for reaching the experimental world, conceptive framework and the world of human life. This systematic pattern provides this possibility by the use of linguistic symbols and the variables of ideational roles.
The problem in this study, too, is discovering the nature of the concept of experience in the sonnets of Saadi’s Golestan on the basis of Halliday’s systematic theory whose ideational role shows an individual’s way of experiencing the world. By the use of ideational role, in this study, the experimental grammar of a work of literature could be identified. Experimental grammar shows the way and type of an individual’s experiences of the world outside. This grammar happens through a transient system i.e. a system that shows how an individual experiences the world and how he reflects it.
The research questions are as follows: what is the frequency of the main active, relational and mental verbs in Saadi’s sonnets? What is the frequency of the minor recitative, behavioral and existential verbs? Considering these verbs (processes), what interpretation and explanation could be presented about Saadi’s general world? What are the roles of the study of verbs ( the study of processes) in Saadi’s sonnets? By the use of the processes of role-thinking, is it possible to reach Saadi’s experimental grammar in his sonnets?
Methodology of the study is objective and statistical stylistic studies in which potential variables have been used as a list and a guidebook for doing the analysis (Leech, 1983: 74-75). These potential variables in this study are the role-thinking variables of Halliday’s systematic theory. In terms of methodology, the study type is applied, its method is combined (qualitative-quantitative) and the type of carrying out the study is descriptive-analytical. The statistical society is all sonnets of Saadi and the sample volume includes 9055 verbs in them which have been selected by systematic sampling method. The sample unit is a sonnet and the unit for verb analysis is a verb (process). The techniques also are the statistical techniques including frequency and percentage.
The theoretical basis of this study is a compound of cognitive stylistics and Halliday’s semantic roles. The objective of both theories is to achieve the semantic and conceptual system of the language and the role thinking theory of the system can be effective in achieving this objective. Theoretical basis of role-orientation relies on attention to meanings and roles of language and study of its formation in relation to contextual elements of the language. Cognitive linguistics is identically role-oriented and at the same time, it considers the descriptive sufficiency of formalism; and like formalism, the context has special importance in it (Vyvyan and Green, 2006: 778). This attitude has been contrary to formalism which considers language as an independent phenomenon. It has experimental and phenomenological perspective towards language (Geeraert, 2006: 77).
In the systematic grammar, languages are divided on the basis of three substantial meanings: ideational meaning, interpersonal meaning, and textual meaning. Role ideational includes three main axes that include “doing” axis, or the physical world through which we express actions and events that we have experienced. In the “sensing” axis or the world of consciousness, we express the experiences of thinking, feeling, seeing and hearing that happen in the mind. The process of “being” includes attribution relationships in which one adjective attributes one feature to a participant and no two participants are independent of one another. Also, this process includes identity relationship in which two participants are independent of one another and one gives identity to the other one. The process of including the world of abstract relationships and interrelates different types of material experiences to one another (Halliday, 2005: 170-196).
Generally, Halliday’s ideational role draws three general worlds in the experimental grammar of the individuals. All of us experience the outside world and open our experiences in the form of ideational processes; therefore, this process of experimental grammar which forms an individual’s collection of experiences in his life is represented in the form of these verbs and processes.
The main verbs and processes represent three main axes of thinking with three types of relational, active and mental verbs. These axes of thinking are the world of abstract, material and conscious relations. Therefore, these main verbs and processes can show the level of a works relation from the abstractness, mentality and objectiveness perspectives. It has to be considered that in the Halliday model, relational verbs are considered as abstract and mental verbs are related to the realm of self-consciousness; therefore, abstract and mental are not the same and differ from one another.
Among the main axes, three minor axes are placed which are double-natured. For example, verbs of expression such as say, express, state, etc. are half-abstract and half-mental because when we express something or talk about it, we both talk about ratios of relationship axis and also develop these ratios in our minds. Verbs of behavior, too, are placed between the world of consciousness and doing and have two aspects i.e. objective and mental; for example, lough, weep, coquet are both controlled by the mind and also are objectively apparent. Also, existential verbs have two material and relational aspects because they refer to the existence of something; in the meantime, they express relation and attribution of something and approve its existence. For example “exists” and “doesn’t exist” are two existential verbs but “is” and “isn’t” are two relational verbs.
By calculating the three main axes of verbs and processes in the ideational role, it can be said that the world of doing relationships that include half of existing and behavioral process, forms 39% of all verbs in Saadi’s sonnets. The world of abstract relationships which form half of behavioral and existential process forms 31% of the total, and the world of conscious relationships which is considered as half of the behavioral and expressive process makes up the remaining 30%. Hence, most axes of the verbs in Saadi’s sonnets are in the world of material relationships which includes the verbs of doing. On the other hand, behavioral verbs, too, are half-doing, just the same as existential verbs. Therefore, doing, existence and behavior have higher frequencies in the verbs of Saadi’s sonnets; and as a result, the sonnets are more realistic. Saadi’s world of abstract and conscious relationships or mental relationships are the same in the sonnets, and it can be concluded that he has dealt with the world of abstract and mental relationships equally.
Study of verbs in the great Persian works can be a step towards more introduction to the experimental worlds of creators of these works and helps scholars get more knowledge for interpretation and analysis of the worlds of these works. This can be helpful for them in the critical studies and reviews of these works; especially, the study of verbs based on outstanding linguistic theories which rely on linguistic roles, meanings and contexts can provide more academic perspectives in analysis and interpretation of important literary works. Study of verbs is the basis of familiarity with every sentence because it is considered as the main pillar of the sentence and expresses the writer’s style and is the voice of their mind.