ابوالقاسم شابی(1909-1934م) یکی از شاعران برجستۀ معاصر تونس در ادب عربی به شمار می آید که شعر و اندیشه اش را در خدمت انسان و ارزش های انسانی قرار داده است. یافتههای این پژوهش توصیفی ـ تحلیلی بیانگر این است که شعر او توانسته است به عنوان الگوی دیگر شاعران معاصر عرب در مسیر انسانیّت حرکت نماید. وی برآن بود تا در چارچوب هنر شعری ، تجسّم کننده آرزوها و رؤیاهای ناب انسانی باشد.شابی برای رسیدن به چنین هدفی،درون مایههای اساسی شعر خویش را انسان و فضیلت های انسانی همچون؛ بیان ارزش های والای انسانی و اسلامی، تحلیل دردها و رنج های انسان معاصر، فراخوانی انسان به دانش و آگاهی و بیداری و... . قرار داده و پیوسته زمزمه کننده خصلت های ناب انسانی باشد.تعصّب شابی نسبت به وطن و مردم ، خشم و غضب او از بی عدالتی ها ، دعوت به مبارزه با استبداد و استعمار ، فراخوانی به بیداری و تحریک همتها و ارادههای انسانی و به حرکت در آوردن اجتماع خفته در تباهی و فساد ،حرکت در مسیرآزادی و عدالت و شجاعت و عشق و ایثار و...از ارجمندترین خصلت های ناب انسانی هستند که شابی در بیشتر شعرهایش، زیبایی آنها را ستوده است.اهمّیت و ضرورت این جستار در این است که چنین پژوهشهای می تواند پژوهشگران و ادیبان را به سمت اهداف والای انسانی رهنمون نماید.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Human being in lyrical poems of Abulghasem Al-Shabi
Abulghasem Al-shabi (1909-1934 AD) is one of the prominent, contemporary poets of Tunisia in the Arabic literature. He highlights human and human values in his poems and ideology. The present descriptive-analytic study demonstrates that his poems have functioned as a role model for other Arab poets as the way of representing humanity. Shabi idealizes human wishes and human dreams for perfection in poetry paradigm. To access this purpose, Shabi chose humanity and human virtues as the main subject matters of his poems, precious ideas such as supreme human values, Islamic values, explanation of the contemporary human suffering, calling man to gain knowledge and wisdom, etc. He permanently focuses on high human virtues. Shabi’s loyalty to his country and nation, his wrath over the injustice, inviting others to campaign against colonization and dictatorship, humanity consciousness and encouraging human will, supporting freedom, justice, love and generosity, etc. are among the most honorable human values which Shabi praises splendidly in the majority of his poems. Importance and necessity of this study lie in the fact that such surveys can direct researchers and the literati towards elevated human values.
Keyword: Abulghasem Al-Shabi, human values, contemporary Arabic poetry, humanism.
Abul-Qasem Ash-Shaabi was a young poet from Tunisia who became famous in the first half of 20th century as a great and modernist figure in the Arabic poetry and Islamic ideology. He turned to writing poetry in the time when the signs of change and renewal were gradually emerging in the Arabic literature. In his time, he was considered an outstanding figure in this field. He presented his poetry under the influence of romantic school and Mahjari literature. However, unlike them who even without any reason based writing of their poems on their feelings, he wrote his poems with social objectives and in order to elevate human values that were taken from the context of human society. Shaabi’s poetry is a beautiful picture of man and society in his time; he was precisely familiar with different problems of different social classes (Muhammad Karo, 1954: 42). In the world of literature, there are lots of poets who have created links between poetry and human life and have made poetry the mirror of life; Shaabi’s poetry is one of the elevated samples in this regard; in his short life, by relying on his strong connection with nature and being inspired by it, he created beautiful lines of human life on the harp of his poems. Shaabi was after achieving and introducing the ideas of a perfect man. Therefore, he used all his ability so he could develop high human values among people. For this purpose, he looked at the subjects with a humane and Islamic perspective. He had specific attention to human dignity, and in this way, he has used his delicate and beautiful feelings to show beauties of pure humane behavior as much as possible.
In fact, the foundations of Shaabi’s views were a man and everything that elevates the precious concepts of humanity among people. Poetry was not a means of entertainment for him, but it was a framework to place beautiful human qualities in; for him, poetry carried a great responsibility and its duty was to invite people to fight against oppression, injustice, autocracy, colonization, avoid ignorance, and pay attention to bravery, greatness, knowledge, science, and sacrifice. He sometimes uses the figurative language; this is when he turns to nature. Nature and its elements help Shaabi picture beautiful images of human values. He is a poet with elegant ideas whose thoughts, expressions and images applied in his poetry are beyond the limits of time and place. Considering the position of humane issues in the Islamic and Eastern literature, this article tries to study the position of man in the poems of this Tunisian poet. It also tries to answer this question: what is the position of humane issues in the lyrical poems of Abul-Qasem Ash-Shaabi?
The methodology of this survey is descriptive-analytical, and the main source that the authors attribute to is the poet’s Divan.
Humanism has different images in Shaabi’s poems. In this study, the positions of humanism in his poetry are analyzed, and the elements of humanism are explained. In the field of human virtues, especially bravery and greatness, Shaabi shows some aspects of human values. He has a short poem called “Days say” where he looks at bravery and valor with an epic and hopeful spirit. The poet, in this piece of poetry, talks about awakening the oppressed and defeated human beings, about defending their rights, and about fight against colonization and autocracy:
Oh the strider in misguidance and oh the standing one on the blessing of hopelessness,
In the times, you will not be in security, if you sleep in a dark cave whose narrative lengthens.
So if today passes and what precedes it, then a living tomorrow and reviving morning is ahead.
Shaabi’s humanism makes him hopeful about illumination of the fire of bravery and power in the hearts of the oppressed. In his poetry, he threatens the oppressors with death and destruction and gives good tidings to the oppressed ones with hope.
Oh, the oppressor, do not belittle (the oppressed), since truth is great and its patience is a lot.
It sleeps although its eyes are open, and looks at some light which you do not see.
And in this way, we find out that the poet is fluctuating between desire and hope, hopelessness and defeat, in search of fulfilling his desires; desires that turn around the axis of justice and bravery, and are after establishing and creating a life with humanitarian attitudes.
Shaabi’s desire and ideal is achieving human dignity and making the masses of people move against ignorance, autocracy, and colonization. In this path, he sometimes deals with the humanitarian issues with sorrow and anger, and sometimes with the feelings of happiness and prosperity. The sound of his poetry is an honest interpretation of the desires of an idealistic man everywhere and at any time. The moments of sorrow, disappointment, anger, wandering, and the feelings that appear in Shaabi’s poetry are mostly because of oppression over people and overflow of the poet’s humanitarian feelings. Shaabi’s poems are about defending the country and land, freedom and justice, bravery and greatness; they are all about defending elegant human values and reviving this high attitude among the oppressed and sleeping people. The poet’s romantic attitude, too, is a method by which he tries to show beautiful human qualities to people.