عنوان مقاله [English]
Fereidoun Moshiri is one of the most famous, passionate, romantic poets, who romantically thought of the world and humans for more than fifty years. Since, it is necessary to recognize the common thoughts and insights of every era to consider its literary history and its connection to the society, the present research can provide an opportunity for better perception of this poet and indirect perception of social and intellectual history of Iranians, as well as the literary history of the contemporary era. Since, the theme of Love is one of the most frequent themes of Moshiri’s poems; the authors tried to evaluate, assess and classify poet’s emotions in two types of individual emotions and social emotions, while trying to show the frequency of love theme in his poems. Hence, Moshiri concerns social emotions rather than individual ones. The Method of this study is library-documentary, which has been conducted based on the note taking from written and infield references.
Keywords: human emotions, love, altruism, Fereidoun Moshiri, contemporary poetry.
Fereidun Moshiri, according to his poems, is a poet from the land of kindness, and his poetry is always full of moments of love and human emotions. “His poetry is a speaking tongue of a poet who does not like to separate himself from the people of his era by backing a specific front, school or perspective. He purely praises love, praises man, and loves Iran since his life depends on its culture” (Zarin Koub, 1993: 8). He is a poet who with his simplicity, friendliness, a kind heart and delicate poems have been named the poet of kindness, nature, and humanity; he is an honest and friendly man whose poetry is the full-image mirror of his conditions and qualities. “His poetry is a crystallization of culture and this culture has a semantic symbol; it is expressed in a single artistic structure and becomes more eternal” (Sangtarash, 2006: A). Moshiri’s ideas are humanitarian and he applies the most delicate and beautiful terms and expressions to express feelings and emotions. In his poetic life, he has always praised man and love, and these poems have always been accompanied by the color and scent of humanitarianism. Because of this very reason, perhaps it could be said that the most important idea and theme observed all over Moshiri’s poems is “human emotions”.
Themes such as love and kindness are considered to be the main themes of his poetry
To what extent does the classification of emotions and presentation of statistical frequency in Moshiri’s poetry help to know the poet and to analyze his poems?
1.2. Research methodology and sample size
Research methodology in this study is library studies, documentary and on the basis of note-taking from written field and non-field sources. In this study, Moshiri’s poetry collections which have been published in two volumes titled “Reflection of the of Morning’s Breaths”, has been analyzed and investigated.
Moshiri is an honest and truthful poet whose poetry is the full-scale mirror of his qualities and conditions. It can be said that humanitarianism along with affection is the most basic foundations of Moshiri’s poetry. He believes that man, apart from all ideologies, is respectable and appraisable because of being human. His ideas are humanitarian and he uses most delicate and most beautiful terms to express feelings and emotions of love. “He tries to convey emotional and humanitarian concepts of his messages to his audience simply and without any tricks and in a simple way; he uses a simple language to talk about the lack of factors such as freedom, virtue and manliness” (Ahmadi and Zamani, 2011: 38). By doing a review on his poems, it is clearly revealed that Moshiri finds concepts such as kindness and affection in the essence of love. He cries out from the side of love, sacrifices life to friends and sympathizes enemy. Despite coldness, blackness, and unfriendliness of the world, he insistently looks for love, affection and the cure for human pains; he waits for an eternal spring:
I wish the roof of universe came down/ Evils and the obscenities remained under ground/ Eternal spring opened its arms/ Towards the blue and peaceful sky/ Swallows of love and friendship flew
(Moshiri, 2007: 368)
Moshiri calls human beings to love and affection and talks about the magic of love. According to him, love is the cure of human pains. It washes away hatred and sows the seeds of affection. Love is not only an excuse for friendship and affection, but it is also a chance to sympathize enemies. “Moshiri is a poet who praises love, praises man, and in a world where his opponents call for a sonnet, make love a disaster, and beauty unscrupulous, he still keeps nobility of emotions, poetic honesty and naivety which are requirements and signs of a poet. He hums love and reads the message of friendship from the land of friendship, and the message of humanity from the land of peace in our ears” (Shafee Kadkani, 1999: 8). He believes that happiness and liveliness are the miracles of love. He assimilates it to a crystal water that washes away the rusts of sorrow from lives. Moshiri is the poet of virtuous and kind words. Even when he wants to talk about a pain, he does not cry out and kindly expresses his objection. He looks for the important message and philosophy of life in kindness and peacefulness and believes that it is with love and friendship that the world can be saved:
I wish the world was the house of love and affection/ I wish human beings were friends and in peace all the time/ they didn’t greed for one another’s wealth/ they didn’t kill one another/ did not see fulfilment of their wishes in depriving others/ avoided bloodsheds and seductions/ less sharpened their teeth and paws like wild hyenas/ how sweet it is when the chests are filled with love/ how sweet it is when the sun of friendship/ shines in the sky of universe/ how sweet it is when life is empty of tricks (Moshiri, 2007: 366).
Love and human emotions are the axis of most of Fereidun Moshiri’s poems. From his perspective, love is the ring of connection between all components of nature to one another; so much so that its elements can be looked for in nature. He applies his virtuous and refined language in the service of his poetic message and wants a better and lovely world for all mankind and all creatures of God. He, too, like all others, waits for someone to come and divide land, water, trees, and sun, and remove an injustice. He cries out from the street of love, sacrifices himself for a friend, and sympathizes with the enemy. By studying individual emotions in Moshiri’s poetry, it is identified that these types of emotions change in accordance with the poet’s mood and growing of his age. For example, most descriptions of the beloved belong to his young ages. As the poet grows up, this description gradually declines and other individual emotions such as love of child, mother, poets and national heroes become stronger. Also, the poet’s type of emotions become wider and deeper qualitatively and quantitatively as he grows older. The important point is that Moshiri has always considered the human perfection and transcendental poetic intelligence, and has tried to go further from individual aspects of love and generalize it to the social and also transcendental aspects. It is because of this that the poems of his middle ages and those of his old ages are more masterly than the poems of his young ages, and they have come out of individual layers of emotions and taken social and human aspects of themselves. By the statistical study of Moshiri’s poems, it is found out that most love-related aspects of his poems have appeared in his social emotions (58%). Out of this value, love of nature had the highest value (23%), and on the other levels, love of country (14%), love of people (7%) and love of justice (13%) stood at the following levels. In terms of individual emotions (42%), love of the beloved had the most frequency (17%), and after that, love of poets (7%), love of national heroes (5%), love of mother (3%) and love of child (3%) were respectively in the following levels.