عنوان مقاله [English]
Hossein Monzavi is one of the outstanding contemporary sonneteers and one of the basic innovators of contemporary sonnet. Because of dominance over ancient Persian literature and knowledge of different Iranian and non-Iranian myths, Monzavi’s poetry has become an exhibition of different types of epic, theosophical and religious allusions. By the use of allusions, he has made his own words deeper, more effective, multi-meaningful and more expansive. The main aim of this research, by considering to necessity of analyzing methods and devices of making the word deep and effective; and expanding ideas, meaning and culture to more and better understanding of his poems and role of these factors on literary pleasure of his poems, this study and analysis of Monzavi’s poetic deconstructions and interpretations of allusions is based on principals of deconstruction school, a text analysis and description method. Monzavi, deconstructs the allusions in numerous and sometimes repeated cases and presents artistic images using some devices such as subtracting meaning and adding meaning, changing the plot, reversing the binary oppositions, combining the myths, etc.
Key words: Monzavi, sonnet, allusion, deconstruction
The allusion is one of the samples of semantic anomalies which is discussed in the semantic originality. “Talmih (allusion) when l is before m (from the root letters l, m, h), literally means to see, to look, to reveal and to imply, and in the rhetoric, it refers to a story, poem or subjects similar to them; provided that this implication –as it is understood from the meaning of implication- does not include the whole story, poem, etc.” (Shamsia, 1994: 5). In allusion, by the cooperation of some elements of an event, the story, belief, etc. gets briefness, beauty, spiritual and emotional richness and effectiveness. In other words, “allusion is a means of empowering feelings or ideas of the poet or writer by the use of feeling or the opinion stated in the work or in an event” (Perrine, 1997: 76). Myths are collections of tales, beliefs, events, etc. some of which are real and some others are imaginary and superstitious. “In the critical and rhetorical texts of the past, there has been no mention of the position of myth in the poetry; the only subject myth could be placed in is the device of allusion” (Fotouhi, 2007: 278). Mythical implications are better translatable than other poetic images; because “mythical value of myth is maintained even in the worst translations” (Scholes, 2000: 94). Mythical, fictional, historical, etc. implications in words “have two deep structures of simile and analogy; because firstly, the creation of assimilative relationship is between the subject and fiction, and secondly, there is coordination between components of the story” (Shamisa, 2002: 121). The frequency of allusion in the texts, reveals the extensive knowledge of the creators of the works and also the cultural richness of their writings. Hussein Monzavi’s (1945-2004) mind and language in sonnet was role model for lots of poets; so much so that it can be said contemporary sonnets owes a lot to him in many aspects; Monzavi’s most important works are: The Wounded Throat of Sonnet Writing (1966-1971), Of Hemlock and Sugar (1971-1989), With Love in the Neighborhood of Disaster (1990-1992), I Will Last with Love (Nimaees/1972-1999), These Paper Clothes (2001), With Siavash through Fire (sonnet collection/2005), etc.
A correct understanding of imageries that have allusion motifs, on the one side, depends on the meaning of allusions, and on the other side, on the identification of the ways of using allusions in the literary works. This study tries to find appropriate answers to the following questions:
How is the frequency and variety of allusion in Monzavi’s works?
Has Monzavi applied deconstruction of allusions?
What are the most important methods and tricks of deconstruction of allusions in Monzavi’s sonnets?
1.2.Explanatory Research Methodology
This study tries to evaluate and analyze Monzavi’s poetic interpretations and expressions in allusion on the basis of principles of deconstruction. Therefore, alongside mentioning variety of allusions in Hussein Monzavi’s sonnets, types of deconstruction have been classified under topics such as de-conception, conceptualization (justification, interpretation and phantastic etiology), the forms of manipulation in the allusions (changing of the plot, changing priorities in dual oppositions, changing the setting) and blending of the myths.
In Monzavi’s sonnets, different types of allusion such as mystic, epic, mythic, religious and historical allusions about Iranian, Greek, Semitic, etc. geographies and cultures are observable. However, most part of his allusions are related to Iran i.e. they link to Iranian myths (Rustam, Esfandyar, Simurgh, Arash, Shirin and Farhad, Siavash, Zahhak, Haft Khan, etc.); also references to stories, narratives and myths such as creation of Adam and Eve, Joseph, Leili and Majnun, Jesus, the Last Supper, hemlock and Mansour Hallaj are considerable in his works. Mythical allusions are frequently used in Monzavi’s sonnets. Myths are the reflection of the internal meaning of the world and human life, fears and hopes and also ideals of different nations that appear in the formation of symbols or narratives. Monza, in his sonnets, has a dual attitude to allusion; sometimes, according to content, subject and atmosphere of the poem, he has the same classical perspective on mythical, fictional, historical, geographical, religious, etc. elements; in this attitude, he is a narrator who does not make any major changes in the allusions; but in some cases, he starts deconstruction and uses different tricks by recreating and presenting different interpretations of the myths in his allusions, and in this way, he presents norm-breaking artistic images. In such cases, he challenges old beliefs and traditionalized frequent narratives; by coming out of the authority area of specific narratives of events, deconstructing the narrative and breaking apart the logical process of events, or by changing and substituting characters, atmospheres and other allusion elements, he deconstructs and makes them adjustable with the common experiences of contemporary man; with this trick (deconstruction in allusion), he conducts an aesthetic function which is originated form a customizing and de-normalizing mind and language. In the contemporary literature, it is this issue that leads the modern man to discover the echo of his endless inner desires and ideals from the heart of ancient allusions. T. S. Eliot in his article, Ulysses, Order, and Myth, believes in the balance between contemporary stories and events with old myths. Monzavi emphasizes on his perspective by using Eliot’s views: “by following ancient myths, the contemporary events can be brought closer to art” (Cope, 2005: 37-40).
In the writings of Monzavi, allusion is remarkably used, so much that it could be mentioned as one of his most outstanding poetic features. Monzavi’s wild soul does not tolerate to creep into an isolated corner of the stereotype and frequently used myths; he does not see lots of old allusions satisfying enough to fulfill mental needs of the modern man. In his poetry, like other lingual concepts and symbols, allusion takes part in the endless game of causes and effects, relativity, suspension of meaning, and different interpretations. The poet sometimes uses mythical and historical allusions by extending their meanings. He sometimes empties them from the popular meanings and builds new concepts for them, and sometimes presents beautiful and artistic but unreal reasons for mythical events; these reasons could be classified as hermeneutic interpretations. Sometimes, Monzavi decorates old allusions with phantastic etiology with the help of devices such as similes and congeries so that “the beauty of the beautiful face could be doubled”. The climax of Monzavi’s art in the application of allusions could be observed in the alterations he applies to them. Most important methods of his alterations in allusions is changing the plots and their substitution. Sometimes, too, with a deconstructing perspective, he tries to bring down the existing dual oppositions in allusions. Monzavi’s bird-like mind passes times and places; mingles the past with the present and connects today with the past. Reflection of this fluency of time is sometimes along with the change in the point of view and sometimes with symbolic expression. In the sonnets of Monzavi, the mingling of myths leads to breaking down of setting; and sometimes the common logic of times collapse. This function causes recreation of myths and reproduction of historical and fictional narratives in a new context with fresh meaning and indicative capabilities.