نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه سراوان

2 استادیار گروه معارف اسلامی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

چکیده

مولانا در اشعار غنایی مثنوی که حاصل تعامل سازنده و دوجانبه بنده با معبود است پارامترهایی در معرفت و وصال حق دخیل می داند. نغمه های عارفانه­ی این اثر سترگ، حاصل قلبی سرشار از عشق و معرفت به خالق است. برای متحلی شدن به این درجه از محبت، ساز و کارهایی در مثنوی منعکس شده است. اولین ابزار لازم، عقل و برهان است؛ البته نه هر عقلی با هر کیفیتی. مولوی یکی از مهمترین کارکردهای عقل را فهم باورهای دینی و رفع تعارض و تناقض از مدعیات دینی می­داند، تمام تعریف و تمجیدی که وی از جایگاه خرد و خردورزی به عمل می­آورد به همین کارکرد عقل برمی­گردد. رکن دوم این ماجرا عشق است. بدون غلبه و فوران محبت بنده به صانع –که حاصل معرفت عمیق است- طی مسیر وصال ممکن نیست. ضلع سوم آن سایه­ی میمون قرآن و شرعیت است که شاخصه­ی عرفان اسلامی و منبع ارتزاق معنویت است.در این پژوهش با روش تحلیلی-توصیفی به صورت مستدلّ به طراحی هندسه معرفت دینی مولوی پرداخته شده و به این نتیجه رسیده است که عقل، نقل و عشق و به عبارتی برهان، قرآن و عرفان اضلاع جداناشدنی مثلث  و هرم معرفت دینی مولوی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation and compromise of mind, narrative and love in Rumi’s cognitive pyramid

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mansour Nikpanah 1
  • Ebrahim Noori 2

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, Saravan Higher Education Complex

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic Teachings, University of Sistan and Baluchistan

چکیده [English]

 
Rumi believed that some parameters in lyrical poems of Masnavi-e-Ma’navi, which are the result of cooperation of the servant and God, are effective in knowledge and union with Him.  This great work’s spiritual melodies are originated from a heart filled with the love of God. However, in order to manifest the degree of affection, some mechanisms have been reflected in Masnavi .The first of these tools is wisdom and reason; of course, not any reason with any resolution. Rumi believes that one of the most important functions of the intellect is to understand and resolve the conflict and contradiction from the religious beliefs and from the religious claimants. All the appraisal he makes on reason and wisdom returns to the function of reason. The second pillar of this subject is love. Without the the overflow of the servant’s love of the Creator- which is the result of deep knowledge- it is impossible to progress on the road of reaching the beloved. The third angle is the light of the Koran and Sharia that is characteristic of Islamic mysticism. In the present study, it has been attempted to explain the religious knowledge of Rumi and it has been concluded that wisdom, story and love or in other words, reason, Quran and mysticism are the three inseparable sides of Rumi’s epistemological, religious pyramid.
 
 
 
Key words: Rumi, knowledge, religion, Quran, reason, mysticism
 
 
 
1.1.Introduction
 
This study tries to draw Rumi’s geometry of religious cognition based on Masnavi Sharif and tries to analyze its position, the form of validity, and its relationship according to Rumi. More than being engaged with mind and reason, Rumi is at the service of the Quran and Sufism. He tries to experience and own truth with all his soul. Also because he is a great Sufi, there is no doubt that he believes that the role of intuition is outstanding. In this regard, the position of mind in Rumi’s religious cognitive system requires precise analysis and presentation of more evidence. He believes that the prerequisite for reaching true happiness is to release oneself from material attachment and reaching inner peace as well as a spiritual journey. According to him, finding out the secrets of the Quran and practicing them is an important step for inner cleansing and virtuousness of heart and consequently reaching true happiness. Although Rumi believes that the arm of mind is shorter to reach true happiness, he never rejects it (Rumi, 2004, Book Two, line 978, 1112). Generally, it can be said that according to Rumi, geometrical form of the religious cognition is a triangle whose sides are the Quran, reason, and mysticism. The problem is that: how did Rumi create adjustment between mind and love in order to reach the knowledge of the truth? And how does the Quran play its supporting system regarding them (which seem to be opposite one another)?
 
1.2.Research methodology
 
In this survey, with the descriptive-analytical method, Rumi’s geometry of religious cognition has been designed; in other words, it has introduced mind, narrative, and love, i.e. reason, the Quran and Sufism as the three sides of Rumi’s pyramid of religious cognition.
 
1.3.Discussion
 
Judgment about the mind by considering the type of expression in Masnavi, the apparently scattered expressions, paradoxes in words has led to the formation of different opinions understandings. He sometimes states that mind is so bleak and wood-legged that as if all wrongdoings of man are because of mind, and sometimes, he praises mind so much that if God gives everything to someone and just doesn’t give mind, it is as if he has given them nothing (Zarrin Koub, 1987, vol. 2: 615, and Rumi, 1989: 54) and this is what Khwaja Abdullah has stated in his meaningful prayers: “Oh Lord, to whomsoever you have given mind what haven’t you given? And to whomsoever, you haven’t given mind what have you given?” He sometimes goes further and with a deep and philosophical attitude, states that mind, is the hidden truth of the universe. (Zamani, 2010: 467). The first side from Rumi’s cognitive sides of the triangle which has remained hidden in his pure and enthusiastic as well as mystic ideas to some extent is mind, reason, and deduction which is the footstone and foundation of his other cognitive sides. However, what kind of mind is this mind? And what are its criteria and qualities? What are its accepted and denied branches which must be studied?
 
The first side of the cognitive geometry (mind)
 
This side is the foundation line and the first step in Molana’s cognitive triangle. However, it considers the mind as including some features; some of these features will be mentioned: inefficiency in the divine issues (Molavi, 2004, Book Four, couplets 568-569). Nothingness before love (ibid, Book Three, couplet 4723. Book Four, couplets 2010-2111). The consumer of effort (ibid, Book Two, couplet 1857 and Book Six, couplets 119-120). Risk-taking of fancy and doubt (ibid, couplets 1558-1561). Autocrat and arbitrary (ibid, Book Four, couplets 3339-3340). Engaged in appearances (ibid, Book One, couplet 846). Temporariness and instability of instructions, limitedness of the power to predict and inefficiency in the hereafter affairs (ibid, Book Four, couplet 4310-4312). Zolmat Za (ibid, Book Three, couplets 1309).
 
Generally, Rumi approves the role of mind in cognition of the external tools and causes, creating temporary enlightenment, and believes that it is like a physician that shows the illness of ignorance to us but is unable to cure it; this is similar to what Kant states: “mind can create dust or can show it, but it cannot splash water on it, mind can never penetrate into the supernatural”. Despite all this, the existence of mind is an essential part and is a truth. (Kant, 2983: 9 and Jafari, 2009: 36, 37). Then, what mind does Rumi mean by mind as the first step in evolution and cognition?
 
1.4.Conclusion
 
When Persian lyrical literature enters theosophy, it presents the world full of joy and beauty to the audiences. All-compassionate words of Masnavi about theology and cognition of God are drawn as a beautiful geometry. Basically, in every kind of structure, the pyramid is considered as one of the strongest and most beautiful buildings. By thinking about Rumi’s words, we find out that he, with his cognitive pyramid, lays the foundation for a different type of structure in Islamic theosophy which can never be destroyed. Rumi considers cognition in religion as essential and believes that its sources are mind, narratives, and divine inspiration. He believes that cognition is the preliminary part of love and a requirement for it, as he somehow confirms religious faith which is fluent in all stages and categories of religiosity, and approval without cognition is impossible. True faith depends on cognition of its components, it means that the believer, in the first step, should find out with the logical mind that components of faith like God, prophecy, resurrection, etc. are real (knowledge of the existing and the non-existing things), and in the second step, with the practical mind, they should act upon what they have reached with the theoretical mind. They should fulfill the “musts” and “must nots” so that inner beauty can be achieved and the foundation could be laid for love. According to Rumi, the mind is not superior to the narrative in terms of value, but from the ranking perspective, he believes that mental cognition is prior to narrative cognition. The mind is at the service of narrative and in fact sweeper, not its master. He believes that theosophy and the Quran are superior to reason, not its rival or neutralizer. Mind and reasoning are not misguiding but they are unable to answer some questions in the realm of faith and religion. In Rumi’s perspective, the preliminary state of cognition- such as mental cognition- towards love is undeniable. Love is the fruit of cognition. Love without cognition is paradoxical, love is the fruit of cognition, and loves that are not originated in cognition are nothing but temporary lusts. On the other hand, love is also a way of cognition. It compensates shortcomings and defects of mind. Considering what Rumi says about the value and position of mind and mental cognition, it can be said that he believes the partial mind is weak and invalid, the mind that claims to solve all complicated problems of the world despite all its limitations. The contradiction of love and mind in the literature and theology of Rumi has been drawn by some superficial figures; however, the truth is that he never was against reason and sees no contradiction between reason, theosophy, and the Quran. It seems as if there is an unwritten law that when love is born in the world of theologies, mind gradually draws back. Those who have passed philosophical and deductive issues from the logical lanes and have reached high ranks of cognition have eventually confessed about the disability of mind in theologies. This is a testimony to the existence of horizons that love has opened the eyes of their hearts. Rumi is one of these individuals; of course, such individuals have never believed that mind has to be totally denied in this regard. Among theosophists, only those ones have opposed mind (reason) who have not seriously contributed to logical, philosophical and rhetorical reasoning, and have only reached a hand from a far distance towards the fire of mind for entertainment. Rumi who has experienced forethoughtful mind, not only believes that it does not betray religion and spirituality, but looks at it as a servant to them and believes that religious cognition is a triangle whose identity and existence is mind, narrative, and theosophy; and this is the very cognitive pyramid of Rumi. 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mowlana
  • knowledge
  • religion
  • Quran
  • argument
  • Mysticism
1-قرآن کریم
2-ابراهیمی دینانی، غلامحسین، ماجرای فکر فلسفی در جهان اسلام، تهران، طرح نو، 1376ش
3-بهنام­فر، محمد؛ درویشی، پرویز؛محمدی، ابراهیم، نقد عقلانیت در مثنوی مولانا و کلیات اقبال لاهوری، مجلۀ مطالعات شبه­قاره، سال ششم، شماره 21، صص7-34، 1393.
4-تدین، عطاء­الله، مولانا و طوفان شمس، چاپ اول، تهران: انتشارات تهران، 1372ش.
5-جعفری، علامه محمد تقی، مولوی و جهان بینی­ها، چاپ هفتم، تهران: مؤسسه تدوین و نشر علّامه جعفری، 1388ش.
6-–––––––،تفسیر و نقد و تحلیل مثنوی، چاپ هشتم، تهران: انتشارات اسلامی، 1361ش.
7-زرین­کوب، عبدالحسین، سرّ ‌نی، (دو جلدی) تهران: انتشارات علمی، 1366ش..
8-––––––  ، بحر در کوزه، چاپ دوم، تهران: انتشارات علمی، 1367ش
9-–––––––، نردبان شکسته، تهران: انتشارات سخن، 1382ش.
10-زمانی، کریم، میناگر عشق(شرح موضوعی مثنوی معنوی)، نشر نی، تهران، چاپ هشتم، 1389 ش.
11-سبزواری، ملاهادی، شرح مثنوی، به کوشش مصطفی بروجردی،تهران: سازمان چاپ وانتشارات وزارت ارشاد اسلامی،1375ش.
12-سروش، عبدالکریم، قصۀ ارباب معرفت، تهران: موسسه فرهنگی صراط، 1373ش.
13-شهریار، سید محمدحسین،دیوان شهریار، چاپ چهارم، تهران: انتشارات نگاه و زرّین،1373ش.
14-قانعی خوزائی، مهناز، اخلاق در نگاه مولانا، هستی و چیستی، تهران: نگاه معاصر،1375ش.
15-کانت، ایمانوئل، سنجش خرد ناب،میرشمس الدین ادیب سلطانی،تهران، امیرکبیر، 1362.
16-کلینی رازی، ابی جعفر محمد بن یعقوب، الاصول من الکافی، تصحیح و تعلیق علی اکبر غفاری، چاپ چهارم، تهران: دارالکتب الاسلامیه،1365ش.
17-لاهوری،محمد اقبال، کلیات فارسی،به اهتمام پروین قائمی ،تهران:انتشارات پیمان، 1382ش.
18-گولپینارلی، عبدالباقی، نقد و شرح مثنوی شریف، ترجمه وتوضیح توفیق هـ، سبحانی، چاپ سوم ، تهران، وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی، سازمان چاپ و انتشارات ، 1381ش.
19-مجلسی، محمد باقر، بحارالانوار، الطبعه الثانیه ، بیروت: مؤسسة الوفاء، 1403ه.ق.-1983م.
20-ملکیان، مصطفی، راهی به رهایی، جستارهایی در باب عقلانیت و معنویت، چاپ سوم، تهران، نشر مؤسسه نگاه معاصر، 1387.
21-مولوی رومی، جلال­الدین محمد، فیه ما فیه، تصحیح بدیع­الزمان فروزانفر، چاپ دوم ، تهران: انتشارات پل با همکاری اخلاق،1388ش.
22-–––––––،کلیات شمس تبریزی، مقدمه بدیع­الزمان فروزانفر، تهران: انتشارات امیرکبیر،1381ش.
23-–––––––،مثنوی معنوی، تصحیح و پیشگفتار عبدالکریم سروش، چاپ هفتم،تهران: شرکت انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی، 1383ش.
24-–––––––،مکتوبات و مجالس سبعه، مقدمه جواد سلماسی زاده، چاپ چهارم، تهران: انتشارات اقبال،1387ش.