عنوان مقاله [English]
The semantic plurality of the text and the polyphonic nature of the literary texts, which are connected to the theory of intertextuality, are some of the important and appreciated results of the modern literary theories that have opened various landscapes before the commentators and literary critics. Regarding the intertextual connections view, especially the hypertextuality, Rumi's Masnavi is a unique work among the narrative pieces, as its first story, i.e. ‘The king and The Maid’ has been the hypertext of several similar stories in some narrative and non-narrative texts. The comparison of this story to its prelude narratives based on Genette’s theory of hypertextuality, demonstrates Rumi’s rich taste in storytelling and also determines the extent to which they are connected. In this study, the analysis of Masnavi’s narrative to its sequences of propositions and the comparison of the components of the hypertext narratives based on the above theory shows that the relation between hypertext narrative and poetic prelude is from the indirect and complex transformation and to prose prelude is from the versification transposition. In addition, the application of the principle of free association is originated from Rumi’s affluent usage of histoire enchassee (enshrined) stories and conscious semantic digressions which lead to the successive failures in the story line.
Keywords: narratology, hypertextuality, Masnavi, king, maid, sequence
In Persian literature, within the didactic poetry collections, Rumi’s Masnavi has the most contextual relationships with its previous works. Means of this relationship, for clarification and transference of Rumi’s theosophical ideas, are a strong background in pulpit rhetoric (Zarrin Koub, 1988: 41) and conscious as well as the unconscious use of plentiful mental learning and knowledge in the form of a stream of consciousness. The main vessel of these free associations is narrative, a framework that is the method of deduction and reflection, and human beings can “understand” the world in this framework and can “tell” about the world (Asa Berger, 2001: 24).
1.1.Statement of the problem and research questions
Except for the two books of Eghbal Nama and Javame-ul-Hekayat (1234 AD), preludes of the story of the King and the Maid as Fronzanfar has found (Frozanfar, 1998: 41-42), chronologically are: Ferdows-ul-Hekma (851 AD), Oyun-ul-Akhbar (828-891 AD), Ghanon (1022 AD), Heritage of Khwarazmshahi (1123), Four Articles (1170-1171), Akhbar-un-Nesaa (1216), Eskandar Nama (2156-1227), and Mosibat Nama (1159-1237). In this study, the focus of the work is on three preludes of Ferdows-ul-Hekma, Four Articles, and Mosibat Namah, because of the narrative of Oyun-ul-Akhbar, with little difference in characters and the way of association, is similar to the narrative of Ferdows-ul-Hekma. Also, the narrative of Akhbar-un-Nesaa is the same as the narrative of Oyun-ul-Akhbar with a little difference. Out of these preludes, the narrative of Four Articles that is attributed to Ibn Sina is more similar in the way of treatment and other details to the narrative of Masnavi and “most probably, Rumi’s source was this narrative of Four Articles” (ibid: 42). The narrative of Attar’s Mosibat Nama also is to some extent similar to the narrative of Eskandar Nama, but in details, it is more similar to the narrative of Masnavi and more importantly, it shares the same metric pattern with it. About the fact that why two prose texts of Four Articles and Ferdows-ul-Hekma have been used, it has to be said that out of preludes, as mentioned before, Rumi’s narrative is more similar to the narrative of Four Articles; and it strengthens this presumption that Rumi’s main source was this narrative. Also the narrative of Ferdows-ul-Hekma, apart from its oldness, is considered as one of the main follow-throughs of the story i.e. taking the patient’s pulse and other details is considered as the prelude of Four Articles. The authors are trying to find answers to these questions that: what is the difference in the way of narration in Masnavi with its preludes? Are the narratives of Masnavi merely the result of combining the forms of its preludes? Does Rumi follow the theosophical deforming and by the use of symbolic language and other expressive facilities intentionally and knowingly transforms the nature of prelude narratives, so that with this cultural transformation, he could display his theosophical findings and experiences in the most beautiful framework? Is the difference in the form of Rumi’s narration consequence of the unique structure of his narratives or is it the fruit of a theosophical ideology that only thinks about meaning?
In this study, by the use of Genett’s theory of transsexuality, for comparing and discovering similarities and dissimilarities between prelude and extra narratives, structuralist narratology method has been used. It means that first, every narrative has been divided into follow-throughs and every follow-through into the smallest meaningful narrative unit i.e. proposition. Then, in order to move towards different intellectual structures of every story, propositions were coded with different signs, and eventually, the findings were analyzed.
Studying the background of the subject shows that so far, two independent works titled: From Hints of the Sea (Poetics of narrative in Masnavi) (2010) by Hamid Reza Tavakoli, and Narratology of Masnavi’s stories (2012)by Samira Bashki have been written on the subjects of narratology, main roles in narration, and the types of Rumi’s narrative in Masnavi, etc. the former work includes useful material in relation to the subject of this survey, such as in the fifth part of this work where four common stories of Masnavi and Mantegh-ut-Teir, have been analyzed in the structuralist narratology method which has been partly considered by the authors in this article, too. Articles such as ‘transtextuality, studying the relationships between a text with other texts’ (2007) by Bahman Namvar Motlagh, and ‘Studying some narrative tricks in the stories of Masnavi’ (2009) by Behrouz Mahdizadeh Fard and Nasrullah Emami, about explanation and analysis of some narrative tricks (narrative past tense, verbs of external and internal current, linear narrative and its breakdown, as well as intertextual narrative) and efforts for making them applied are some of other works which are in some way connected to theoretical discussions of this survey. However, the story of ‘The king and the maid’ has not yet been studied from the perspective of this survey.
Research findings show that the literary type of story is not the only appropriate way for transference and induction of far-fetching theosophical concepts for the narrator of Masnavi, but the nature of fiction writing and storytelling also was significantly important. This could be deducted from comparison with preludes, especially the narrative of Attar, from the way narrative tricks like characterization, timed propositions, different codes especially truth displayers⁽ᵛ⁾, validity⁽ᶰ⁾ and advice⁽ᴹᴬͮ⁾ are applied, from formation of frequent failures in the narrative line and also from the type of commitment of fictions. Stream of consciousness or free association which mainly plays the role of interpretation and or emphasis on the subject and is the main and unique feature of Rumi’s style of expression has led to multiplication of follow-throughs (15), abundance of propositions and consequently, to linear extension of Masnavi’s narrative. As narration on the basis of the principle of asociation is one of the features of modern narration and makes the text less trapped in the predetermined structures and rules, structure of Masnavi, too, because of sever spiritual excitements, extensive mental force of association and theosophical revelation of the narrator, is similar to modern narratives, and it is unique in relation to preludes. Most codes applied in the prelude and hypertextual texts are action⁽ᴬ⁾ codes which are the most important and the main codes and show the flowing process of narrative line. The codes of dialogue⁽ᴬᴰ⁾ also include the most propositions in the narratives of Attar and in Masnavi, and have become the source of spreading plot; with this difference that in Attar’s narrative, unlike the narrative of Masnavi, presence of the narrator in the dialogues is less detectible and their style is direct. In Masnavi’s narrative, different types of dialogue such as direct, addressing, indirect, dramatic, and monologues have been used. The truth showing symbols ⁽ᵛ⁾ which strengthen the plot, show the text as true and real, and have the duty to create a cause and effect relationship between propositions, are present in hypertext a lot more than in prelude. Characters in the narrative of hypertext, compared to prelude are multidimensional (king=virtual and spiritual lover, physician=divine sage and the true beloved of the king; maid=king’s beloved and lover of goldsmith), complicated and important. Alteration of the characters in hypertext has been appropriate to theosophical and objectives of Rumi, such as the means of extending theosophical context of the story. In the two prose preludes, there is no description observed. The most outstanding art of Attar in attracting the narrative listeners is in description of characters which are direct and also in making them tangible; however, in the hypertext, most descriptions which are indirect, dramatic and appropriate to the purpose of the narrator, refer to spiritual features of the characters. Rumi’s tendency to briefness in descriptions leads the story quickly. Unlike the preludes, in Masnavi’s narrative, the background characters, too, have key roles in developing and leading the story. Using symbolic codes, and creating the possibility of reading further have promoted the hypertext narrative from a simple and shallow story to an allegorical and symbolic narrative. Unlike hypertext, preludes, except for Mosibat Nama which includes moral and educational points, remain in that simple and shallow level of the story. According to free propositions in the narrative of Masnavi, the quantity of information transferred to the narrative listener is much more than the information transferred from preludes. All four narratives are narrated by omniscient narrator, with this difference that presence and the voice of Rumi in the story is constantly felt. The happening time of the narratives is in the past. One of the outstanding features of hypertextual narrative is existence of the element of sleep which because of its connection to the unseen world which is dominant over the timed world, it creates an opportunity to overtake time and meet the future. In the narratives of Ferdows-ul-Hekma and Mosibat Nama, place and time propositions have not been mentioned. In the narrative of Four Articles, only place of events has been mentioned, but by dealing with details of time and place of the events, Rumi has made the stories more realistic. Unlike preludes, in Rumi’s narrative, the characters (king, divine sage) are repeatedly valued. Rumi and Attar’s penetration into the depths of the characters’ minds and spirits is admirable. It reaches its climaxes in Rumi’s narrative. The last point is that the relationship of Masnavi with the prose preludes (Ferdows-ul-Hekma and Four Articles) in terms of placement of poems and its relation to the versed prelude (Mosibat Nama) is in the form of indirect transformation and is complicated as well.