عنوان مقاله [English]
The epic and bloody movement of Imam Hussein (AS) is one of the most influential political and divine uprisings of human history. Attention and importance to various dimensions of emotional, educational, political and ethical teachings that have always been the light of the way and the ship of salvation of humanity for understanding and insight laid the foundation of a literary school and movement in the Persian poetry and literature world that is described as religious, ritual and Ashura literature and laid the formation of various poems such as poetry, ta'ziyeh, exhortation, satire, epic and political and social poems about the events of Ashura.
1-1 Statement of the Problem and Research Questions
The incident of Ashura, in its character, determines boundaries of the good and evil. Many poets and speakers in their poems, referring to the dual concepts of Ashura, try to prove the positive attributes of the followers of Imam Hossein's thoughts and reveal the negative traits of the advocates of the path of Yazidi. Therefore, positive and negative concepts as they appear in their ultimate form in Ashura are described in the ritual poetry of today as ultimately peaked and descended. The present astudy, by examining the Ashura manuscripts in contemporary religious literature, is to answer these questions: how is the evolution of Ashura's manifestations in poetry discussed in the decades concerned? How do the poets explain the way to the audience with the border of the two opposing poles in their poetry? What is the most widely used theme of Ashura's poems in poetry? Among the poets studied, which one has paid more attention to Ashura?
2-1 Objective and the Necessity of the Research
The analysis of the two dimensions of Ashura in the contemporary religious poetry helps us to find out exactly the hidden aspects of the Ashura uprising. . Paying attention to this aspect of the poetry of Ashouri invites the reader to a deep understanding of the existence of two opposing poles to learn from the educational teachings on the one hand, know the evil intentions of the enemy, think better with effective feedback, make judgment and take a lesson.
3-1 Detailed Research Methodology
This research has been done through descriptive-analytical and content analysis. The theoretical foundations of the research, based on the library resources and the main sources including the works of the poets concerned in the subject of Ashura, have been studied and analyzed.
3-1 Lessons of Ashura:
Edification in the meaning of following an advice (Dehkhoda, 1998: under the edification) causes awakening and consciousness of man. Edification is devoted to a state in which " there is a visible and evident epistemic, a device and a platform for the understanding of esoteric and immaterial knowledge" (Isfahani, 1984: below edification). The history and aspiration of Ashura have many educational, political and moral teachings and it consists of two parts of the teachings. One expresses Imam Husseini's (AS) Thinking and Conduct and the other represents the imaginary thought of Yazidi. Imam Hosseini thought is smooth, clear, and it expresses the direct path and the highway of human guidance, but Yazidi's view is dark and despicable.
2-3 Contemporary Religious Literature
One of the most important parts of the ritual or religious literature is Ashura's poem. "The Ashurian poetry is a poem that describes the value categories of this divine movement and is committed to turning its focus on its underlying issues" (Mujahidei, 2000: 48), A poem that "with a commitment to the high values of Imam Hussein (as) in reforming the Ummah, establishing justice and fighting against the tyrant, has always been purposeful and openly or hidden tries to realized the goals of his movement, sometimes by challenging the rule of the oppressors so it has put oppression in jeopardy "(Ansari, 2010: 29).
1-2-3 Lessons of Ashura in Contemporary Poem
Effective and profound understanding of educational teachings and positive values in Ashura will be realized if we look at the faces of Yazidis and their performance. In fact, the freedom of Imam Hussein (AS) is the cause of his hard resistance to the humiliation of the Yazidis. Testimony, truthfulness and insight against worldliness, pragmatism and neglect of the devotees of Yazid show their true value better. And basically, these values in the Ashura uprising will be a new identity along with Yazidian performance. And the lessons of Ashura are the result of these two thoughts. By examining the concepts of Ashura in the poems of selected poets, the issues of freedom versus slavery, the revival of religion versus non-religious prevalence, insight against ignorance, spirituality versus worldliness, martyrdom against the dream of the world and power of the world, death with dignity versus the disgraceful life, Hussein's justice against the ruthless government has a considerable frequency, which has come at the end of each topic with a plurality of graphs. By comparing these two opposing poles in ritual poetry, the audience reaches an inner consciousness that can separate the path from the false one and understand the result of the work.
Thematic graphs from 1 to 7 in the abundance of verses indicate that most of the selected poets have focused on the two dimensions of Husseini's thoughts and Yazidi's thoughts in their poetry. Among the negative implications of the evident message of the cruel Yazidi regime, among all the poets, justice-centered value message is more frequent. This indicates that in the eyes of the poet today, the rise of oppression is one of the most important factors in the incidence of Ashura. The other point is that Esrafili has considered negative topics more than other poets. And his most frequent subject is ignorance, worldly, cruelty, the dream of the holy, the prevalence of atheism and contempt. It seems that the poet's axis of thought is more based on the negative aspects of the uprising of Ashura. In this way, according to the negative values in his poetry, he better explains the way of Imam Hussein's uprising for audience.
The evolution of Ashura's poems of the poets discussed in the decades (Fig. 8) suggests that the ascent of Ashura values in the seventies and eighties has almost been more than the other two decades. It seems that the content of ritual poetry has grown in the maturing period of the Islamic Revolution. The only issue is martyrdom that is growing in the nineties. This point indicates that the value of the issue of martyrdom in the decades after the revolution was of interest to their poets and audiences. Therefore, the poets emphasized this message in explaining the values of Ashura.
The most widely used theme of Ashura's lessons (Chart 9) includes martyrdom versus relationship dream with %24/29, insight against ignorance with %23/23, justice against ruthless government with %14/30 percent, and religion versus atheism 10/48%, which has the greatest impact on the studied poets, respectively. The frequency of issues of freedom ... with %9.65, death with dignity ... with %9.15, and worldliness ... with 9% were found to be approximately the same in poems of the poets. It can be understood that the main message of Imam Hussein (AS) was to preserve the ideal of martyrdom, awakening the Ummah, the establishment of justice and worshiping God, and this point is right in the eyes of the poet of today. Among the studied poets (Diagram 10), Esrafili with %23.13, Zholide with % 20.29, Hosseini with % 13.98, Hamidzadeh with %12.64 and Bagheri with % 10.98 have used Ashura lessons a lot in their poems.And Mousavi-Garmaroidi with 6.98%, Hosseini of the 60s with 6.48%, and Biabanaki with 5.49% have relatively less used Ashura lessons . Accordingly, one can conclude that the view of the ritual poet today is not only emotional in Ashura; however, it is also a look of insight and awareness. He focuses on all aspects of the Ashura incident; sometimes in his poems, with the mention of positive concepts, the propagator of thought and the path of Hussein (AS), and sometimes by stating some lessons in the imaginary thought of Yazidi, he tries to make his audience refrain from many bad attributes and vices.
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